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African American DNA Research Forum

Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire

The Sosso lived by the Niger River. The Niger Delta consist of SWAMP FORESTS BY A RIVER. ( http://www.eoearth.org/article/Niger_Delta_swamp_forests ) This is a major area for trade and unites South, East, West and North Africa... most notably at Timbuktu (founded by the Tuaregs). It becomes a key point in the formation of future Empires in this region.

The name "Soto" means "grove", "swamp" and "by a wooded river". A swamp is any wetland dominated by woody plants. Variations can be "De Soto", "Sotolongo", etc. Sounds African? That's because it IS. It arrived after the Almoravids conquered the Ghana Empire and moved into the Iberian Peninsula. through Morocco. It may have BECOME "Soto", but its origins are not from Spain. This type of surname could not have evolved from the area of Galicia, a traditionally Celtic-Roman-Visigothic area that later fights off the Moors and falls under the rule of the Kingdom of Leon. The surname originates in West Africa and the Sahel. Given that "El Cid" was really a North African mercenary who fought his own people for money, it is not uncommon to believe that other Moors would in turn become mercenaries for the Spanish Crown. Hernando De Soto may have North African origins as well.

Definition: Forest, grove, or swamp. From the Spanish "soto" meaning grove. Most likely referred to one who lived near or in a forest or grove of trees. (source link: http://genealogy.about.com/library/surnames/s/bl_name-SOTO.htm)

"As Ghana grew poorer, it also lost its strength, and the vassal kings and chiefs broke away, until little besides Kumbi Saleh was left. There may have also been the religious factor; the king kept his traditional beliefs, but many of his servants and subjects, and most of his rivals, were now Moslem (the Almoravids had converted many West Africans to Islam while they were in charge). Among the rivals, the most dangerous were the Tukulor in Senegal, the Soso of the Upper Niger River, and the Mandinka (also called the Mandingo or Malinke) of the Niger's inland delta. In 1230 Sundiata Keita, a nominal convert to Islam, became leader of the Mandinka, and overthrew his overlord, King Sumanguru Kante of the Soso. Ten years later, the Mandinka and Tukulor had a fight, and Ghana was caught in the middle. The Tukulor occupied Kumbi Saleh; Sundiata drove them out and kept the city for his kingdom. That marked the end of Ghana, and the beginning of the larger and richer empire of Mali." (source link: http://xenohistorian.faithweb.com/africa/af05.html#Islam4 )

• ca. 11th century Abu cUbayd al-Bakri, a Moorish nobleman from Córdoba, Spain, chronicles the history of ancient Ghana. Having no personal contact with the area, he bases his writings upon the reports of Muslim travelers and traders, compiling works such as The Book of Routes and Kingdoms. (source link: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/07/sfw/ht07sfw.htm )

"The Almoravid dynasty (al-Murabitun, ca. 1062–1150), a newly emerged Islamic power in North Africa, ethnically more Berber than Arab, conquered Morocco and founded Marrakesh as its capital in 1062. Led by Yusuf ibn Tashufin, the Almoravids entered al-Andalus (Islamic Spain) http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/sumay/hd_sumay.htm after the fall of Toledo in 1085 in response to the Ta’ifa leaders' pleas for help in repelling the Christian armies http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/crus/hd_crus.htm of northern Spain. They assumed control of al-Andalus in 1090, while maintaining their primary seat of government in Marrakesh. In this way, the Almoravids came to rule parts of the Sahara, Morocco, Algeria, and Spain and controlled important ports as well as trans-Saharan trade http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tsis/hd_tsis.htm ." (source link: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/almo/hd_almo.htm )

Now... HOW did the Y-DNA (male chromosone) in question (K2) get up north if the Trans-Sahara slave trade was going on? A clue is in the formation of the Ghana Empire.

"The first ruler of this empire was said to be Dingha Cisse, who it is said had a semi-divine status. He came with his people from "the East", either Mali or possibly what is modern day Senegal, and created a coalition against the neighboring tribes and “nomadic raiders”. Some believe that after long battles with the Berbers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berbers , Cisse married the three daughters of their leader and created an impressive alliance." (source link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soninke_people )

There was no distinction between races in Islam, save for "master" and "servant". Islam allowed for slavery of conquered non-Muslims. Those who did not convert were enslaved. Those who converted became "slave traders" and achieved a higher status.

Knowing that Haplogroup (Y-DNA) K2 is found in Somalia and Egypt... the trail is: out of East Africa... into Saudi Arabia near the Persian Gulf... back into East Africa (Egypt, then Somalia... perhaps simultaneaously)... across the Sahel (along the perimeter of the rainforest) with the Fulbe... settling in Mali by the Niger river Delta... where the Sosso Empire would rise and fall.

During the 12th century, Fulbe pastoralists managed to dominate the Malinke farming villages. Historians view the formation of Sundiata's empire (as well as the Sosso empire) as the act of farmers who united to stop pastoral raids for tribute. ( source link: http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his311/notes/sundiata.htm )

ca. 1180–1230 Under the Kante dynasty, the Soso kingdom expands to absorb much of ancient Ghana. ( source link: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/07/sfw/ht07sfw.htm )

ca. 1230–1235 The defeat of Soso by the legendary Mandinka prince Sundiata Keita, "the hungering lion," marks the birth of the Mali empire http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mali/hd_mali.htm . ( source link: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/07/sfw/ht07sfw.htm )

MORE INFO ON MALI: http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his311/notes/sundiata.htm

.oO~Oo.

"Je n’aime pas employer la notion de race (qui n’existe pas) (...).

On ne doit pas y attacher une importance obsessionnelle.

C’est le hasard de l’évolution."

~ Cheikh Anta Diop, restaurateur de la conscience noire

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Re: Surprising Results DNA/AQ/Ali/TAL
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/K2/Muslim Expulsion 1609/Songhay Empire
Re: Fulbe/Fulani
Re: Surprising Results DNA/AQ/Ali/TAL
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Re: Surprising Results DNA/AQ/Ali/TAL
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Re: Adjuntas/Ponce/haciendas/African/Taino
Re: Surprising Results from DNA
Re: Surprising Results from DNA

18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
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