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Re: How Accurate is The Information?
In Response To: Re: How Accurate is The Information? ()
This is a newsletter from the Gowen Fioundation, Volume 10, No. 11 July 1999.
Surprisingly this information ties in with your information Allen.
By Anna Going Friedman & Jaymie Friedman Frederick
South Carolina is truly a melting pot of nationalities. Shortly after 1500, the Native American population of South Carolina was introduced to explorers, adventurers and settlers from Spain and Portugal. Within a short period of time, Moors Berbers, French Huguenots and Jews, fleeing the Spanish inquisition flocked to settle the southeastern portion of the present United States. British domination brought the English, Scots, Irish and Germans. Of course, intermingled among all of these in South Carolina were the African slaves.
In 1780, among the general population of present-day Sumter County, South Carolina existed two groups of people; the Turks and the Smiling Indians. "Gowen Research Newsletter" article "General Thomas Sumter Protected The Turks From Discrimination" by Evelyn McKinley Orr [January 1992] details the history of the Sumter County. Turks. Mrs. Orr tells of Joseph Benenhaly and Scott, who volunteered to serve in General Sumter's brigade during the Revolutionary War. As a result of that service, they were given land on the general's plantation. The article further states that family surnames among the Turks were Chavis, Lowery, Hood and Ray.
The article written by Mrs. Orr goes on to state that the Turks petitioned the state legislature to be governed by laws pertaining to white inhabitants and not by laws for slaves and free negroes. They described themselves as "free Moors" and subjects of the emperor of Morocco. According to the "Journal of the State House of Representatives" January 20, 1790, the Turks were recognized as Turks with rights as whites. Were these Turks able to achieve white status because of the influence of Gen. Sumter?
Also found in Sumter County were the Smiling Indians. The article "Turks of Sumter County South Carolina" gives an insight into both the Turkish community and the Smiling Indians.
"Between the towns of Stateburg, Providence and Sumter we find the lands of "Ray" and "Benenhaly." Hardly more than 16 miles due Southeast of the Turks, "Timmonstown," the home of the nearest indians--80 people named Gibbes, Smiling, Goins and Chavis, for the most part, a group completely apart and unto themselves. Both of them were founded by one man, Joseph Benenhaly in the case of the Turks and Thomas Gibbes in the case of the Indians; Gibbes having settled there by 1800 and Benenhaly by 1810. The two communities never had anything to do with each other, any more than if they lived on different planets.
The 40 Turks and 80 indians around Timmonstown are the two communities of people neither a part of the general white population or part of the black population."
The Revolutionary War was at last over. This new-found freedom been a long and costly ordeal for the colonies. As a means of paying foreign debt accrued during the war, South Carolina in March of 1789 passed an ordinance requiring all Free People of Color to pay an increased one fourth of a dollar head taxation to begin February 1791. An additional taxation of $2.00 per head for those above 16 years of age was added on December 21, 1792. This increased taxation was greater than that being levied against the individual white person.
Petition 164 drafted bv John and William Morris, from the Sumter District, was placed before the legislature of South Carolina December 3, 1793.
"To the Honourable David Ramsay, Esquire, President of the Honourable Senate, and to the others the Honourable the members of the same.
The Petition of John Morris, William Morris and other inhabitants of Camden District in behalf of themselves and others who come under the description of Free Negroes, Mulattoes and Mustizoes.
That with submission your Petitioners beg leave to observe that they conceive their ancestors merited the Publick confidence and obtained the Title of a Free People by rendering some particular Services to their Country, which the Wisdom and goodness of Government thought just and right to Notice and to reward their Fidelity with Emancipation, and other singular Privileges.
That before the War, and till very lately, your Petitioners were Freeholders or Tradesmen, paid a tax only for their Lands, trades and other Taxable property in common with others the Free White Citizens of the State, Poll Tax for any of their children while under their jurisdiction.
That in March 1789, an Ordinance was passed Intitled an Ordinance for Funding and ultimately discharging the Foreign debt of this State, wherein it was Ordained that a Tax of one fourth of a Dollar per head per Annum be imposed upon all Negroes, Mustizoes and Mulattoes: the same to commence in February 1791, and from thence continue for the span of Ten years. "
That by subsequent Act, Intitled an Act for raising Supplies for this year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety two, passed the 21st day of December last past, your Petitioners besides paying a Tax for their Lands and other Taxable property are made liable and have accordingly paid the sum of Two Dollars per head for themselves--the same sum per head for their wives and the same sum per head for each of their children above Sixteen years of age, who are under Jurisdiction.
That your Petitioners are generally a Poor needy People; have frequently large Families to Maintain; and find it exceeding difficult and distressing to support the same, and answer the large demands of the Publick; which appears to them considerably more than Double what was formerly Exacted from them; In consequence of which they conceive their Situation in life but a small removed from Slavery; that they are likely to suffer continued inconveniencies and disadvantages; and in the end to be reduced to poverty and want itself.
In confidence therefore of the high 9 ; ? G O ain of your Honours Veracity, and readiness to redress every Grievance which may appear really such, We do most humbly A B D L T nours would condescend to take the distressed fate of your Petitioners into your wise Consideration, and Vouchsafe to Grant them such relief as your Honours in your wisdom shall be meet.
We the subscribers have been acquainted with John and William Morris a number of years past who have always supported the character of honest Industrious well-meaning People; and being informed of their being greatly distressed in Amount of their Taxes, Do therefore recommend their Petition to the Honourable the Legislature.
_______? Pearson John ______?
Petition of John Morris, William Morris and others, Inhabitants of Camden District in behalf of themselves and others who come under the description of Free Negroes, Mulattoes and Mustesoes. [Mustizos]
Ch. Taylor, W. Brown, W. Ellison
And your Petitioners as in duty bound shall ever Pray
William _______? George Coal
Petition Number 164 brings before us a third group of people identified as Negroes, Mulattoes and Mustizoes who were not part of the white population. Notice among the 21 signers of Petition 164 were both Edward Going Sr. and Edward Going. It has not been ascertained if Petition 164 was passed by the Legislature, as was the Petition of the Turks. Who was this group of people signing Petition Number 164, and where did they come from? Richard Winn's statement on Petition 164 indicated that they had lived in Camden District for several years.
The adjoining county of Fairfield in the Camden District was home to Edward Going. The information found about Edward Going is sparse.
On August 9, 1786 Edward Going received seventy pounds, one shilling and five pence sterling for duty in Roebuck's Regiment, according to the stub entries to Indents. His pay on one occasion was requested to be delivered to Capt. John "Buck" Gowen of adjoining Spartanburg County. Edward Going had lived in Brunswick county in 1784, according to the "Southern Lineages." Edward Going and Nancy Scott on June 18, 1793 were named administrators of the estate of "James Scott, miller" who died interstate, according to Fairfield County Will Book.
Were these three groups connected? The surname Chavis was seen both among the Turks and the Smiling Indians. The surname Goins among the Smiling Indians and the Camden County group. It would appear that there was more connection between the groups than the article "Turks of Sumter County South Carolina" would have us believe.
A second mystery is still before us. Most of the names listed as signing Petition 164 were not on the 1790 census of South Carolina. Perhaps a Logan County Kentucky history book can some light on the situation.
Special thanks is due to Howard M. Branham of Lugoff, South Carolina for his research.
Sharing information. I will try to find Jayme again.
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