Reconstruction Period Research Forum
Mitchell & Marshall family, SC, NC, LA, TX
Mitchell & Marshall family timeline // Carolinas, Louisiana, Texas
1776 Leo Mitchell, born in SC, could be oldest American-born ancestor of Mitchell family. Her parents were born in Africa, according to census of 1880, when she lived in Houston, TX with her grandson Richard McCray, a drayman.
1800 Richard (Dick) Mitchell was born in SC. Eighty years later he and his wife Mariah were farmers living near Dick Mitchell (b. 1823) and his wife Mila (Miley) in Fort Bend County, TX.
1805-20 Richard Mitchell’s wife Mariah was born in SC, 1805. Joseph and Alfred Brevard lived in Kershaw Co., SC, 1820. County seat, Camden, is oldest inland city in SC.
1823-53 Richard (Dick), Mingo, Millis, John, and Burt (Burk) Mitchell, born in SC, may all be descendants of Richard (b. 1800) and Mariah (b. 1805). One of these men may be Lowell Mitchell’s paternal grandfather. Kate, a slave from SC, born 1836-37, may be the mother of Adeline Brevard Willis Marshall, third wife of Lowell’s maternal grandfather Wesley Marshall.
1838 On land granted by Stephen F. Austin to Samuel M. Williams in “first Anglo settlement” in Texas, Samuel’s brothers Nathaniel F. and Matthew R. Williams used slave labor to grow cotton, corn, and sugar cane at Oakland plantation in Fort Bend County.
1842 Wesley Marshall, born in LA, is Lowell Mitchell’s maternal grandfather. In 1880 his wife was Haldy Marshall, second wife Lucy Lewis, and third wife Adeline Brevard Willis.
1843-45 Nathaniel and Mathew Williams established a raw sugar mill at Oakland plantation, 1843. Haldy ____, born in NC in 1845, is Lowell’s maternal grandmother. In 1880 her husband was Wesley Marshall. He remarried in 1887and again in 1889. Wesley and Haldy Marshall are parents of Lou Marshall, wife of John Mitchell and mother of Lowell Mitchell.
1852-53 Vergil____, born in TX in 1842, is Lowell’s paternal grandmother. In 1880 her TX-born husband, Phillip Marshall, was stepfather of Lowell’s father John Mitchell. Benjamin F. Terry (1821-61) and William J. Kyle (1803-64) bought Oakland plantation in 1853 from Nathaniel and Mathew Williams.
1855-57 Adeline Brevard may have been born in SC and brought to TX by slaveholders. E.J. Brevard of Sugar Land (b. 1832 in SC) brought child Adeline from SC, or possibly bought her from Lewis Stroble of Stafford Point. Stroble and Brevard later served in TX Confederate 3rd Cavalry Regiment. In 1857 Stroble purchased mother and child, Kate and Adeline, from the Patton family of Columbia, Brazoria Co., TX. Their names appear in a list of slaves from the Patton plantation (Varner-Hogg Plantation Slavery Project). Adeline was third wife of Wesley Marshall, Lowell’s maternal grandfather. Her oral history is published in Texas Slave Narratives.
1857-59 Richard (wife Mila and daughter Betsey), Mingo, Millis, John, and Burk (or Burt) Mitchell, all born in SC, were brought as slaves to TX. One of these men may be paternal grandfather of Lowell Mitchell. Possibly they were slaves of Mitchell family whose members in Fort Bend Co. were born in NC, KY: John C. Mitchell, Thomas W. Mitchell, James R. Mitchell, Ada Mitchell. Lowell’s father John Mitchell and John’s siblings (b. 1872-78) Thomas, Mary, Ada are named after members of slaveholding Mitchell family. Sugar Land post office opened, 1858.
1861-65 Civil War – Lewis M. Stroble, captain, and E.J. Brevard, rank unknown, served in Confederate 3rd Cavalry Regiment of Texas State Troops, 1864-65. Both Stroble and Brevard were born in SC. Benjamin Terry and William J. Kyle died. Texas slaves were not freed until Gen. Granger read Emancipation Proclamation in Galveston on June 19, 1865—“Juneteenth.”
1865-66 To protect mutual interests of planters and workers in producing a profitable crop, the Freedmen’s Bureau ruled that during crop season, freedmen were not allowed to leave the plantation or refuse to work from Monday through Saturday afternoon.
Newspaper clipping (unknown source and date, 1866?) pasted on a page of the register of letters sent and received by William Rock, a local agent of the Freedmen’s Bureau in Richmond, TX:
On Tuesday evening, the 15th inst. Gen. Kiddoo, Chief of the Freedmen’s Bureau for the state of Texas, delivered a speech from the courthouse steps, to a large gathering of freed people of Fort Bend County. The general’s remarks were pertinent, embracing good advice, stubborn facts, and gave general satisfaction to the well disposed. We hope it may be productive of much good, and in this our wish we are joined by the planters generally.
Jan 19, 1866 Tom W. Mitchell contracted with freed farm workers including Wiley Mitchel, Adam Foster and his wife Pheby. Tom W. Mitchell also must provide for Milly Mitchell’s five children and Wiley Mitchell’s three oldest children: two suits of clothing, good quarters, food, fuel, and medical care. Tom W. Mitchell also contracted with Emily Mitchell. In 1860 Thomas W. Mitchell, NC-born farmer of Fort Bend County, lived in Pittsville, TX. In 1870 he lived in Richmond, TX. In 1880 he was a railroad agent in Brazos, TX. In 1870 Adam and Phebe (Pheby, Phoebe) Foster lived in Richmond. Pheby Foster, widow, lived with Henry and Lissia Flemon in Fort Bend Co. in 1880.
Mar 10, 1866 R.G. Kyle contracted with freed farm workers including Mingo Michel, Dick Michel, Beverly Homes [Beverly Holmes], Ana Homes [Annie Holmes], Milly Michel, Burk Michel [Burke, Burt, or Burton Mitchell]. TN-born farmer R. G. Kyle, 54, was counted in Galveston, TX in 1870 census. He is probably related to William Jefferson Kyle, one of the largest slaveholders in Texas, and William Rufus Kyle, former co-owner of Oakland Plantation in Sugar Land, Fort Bend Co., TX. Beverly Holmes, sharecropper in Sugar Land in 1870, moved to Houston where he and John Mitchell worked as draymen at Phoenix Lumber. In 1900 Beverly Holmes lived in Houston with wife Annie and niece Lewella Mitchell.
Mar 22, 1866 A.F. & E.G. Brevard contracted with freed farm workers including Adeline Brevard. Freedmen were entitled to ¼ of entire crop plus food, shelter, and medical care. In 1860, E.J. Brevard, NC-born farmer, lived near SC-born farmer Josiah King in Richmond. King was hostile toward freedmen. Adeline Brevard is “Adline Marshall” in Federal Writers Project Texas Slave Narratives. Adeline’s first husband is Austen Willis (Wellis); her second is Wes Marshall. Wes (Wesley) Marshall is father of Lou Jennie Mitchell, wife of John Mitchell of Bellaire, TX.
Apr 25, 1867 John C. Mitchell, agent for J.R. Mitchell contracted with freed workers, including Ellen Mitchell and Melvina Mitchell. 1860 census: James R. Mitchell, 27, b. in KY. 1860-1900 census: KY-born attorney John C. (J.C.) Mitchell in Richmond, TX.
Apr 29, 1867 R.G. Kyle contracted with Millis Mitchell and Ellen Mitchell. In 1880 farmer R.G. Kyle, born 1816 in TN, lived in Dist. 48, Fort Bend Co.
1868 Millis Mitchell married Emily Williams, 27 Oct. 1868.
Frank Mitchell v. E. Brevard, 17 Dec. 1868: Former slaveholder Brevard accused freedman Mitchell of theft of a horse or mule. Mitchell’s plea was “not guilty.” He claimed that the mule or mare got away from his control and somehow ended up at his house. The Freedmen’s Bureau agent in Richmond concluded that Mitchell had stolen the animal.
E.J. Brevard, SC-born former slaveholder and Confederate veteran, may be “Cap’n Brevard” that Adeline Marshall recalls in Texas Slave Narratives. Adeline Brevard Willis Marshall was an enslaved and free worker on Brevard’s farm near Oyster Creek in Sugar Land. Brevard’s farm was between the Borden and Thatcher properties. Adeline was second wife of Lowell’s maternal grandfather Wes (Wesley) Marshall.
1869 Texas land title abstract dated 20 Jan. 1869 for 279.50 acres owned by John Mitchell in Harris Co. TN-born African American John C. Mitchell (1837-1921) was elected to 12th Texas Legislature as a representative of Burleson, Brazos, and Milam counties. Is there any connection between John C. Mitchell and the land title? Is there any link to our Mitchell ancestors?
1870 Lowell Mitchell’s ancestors were agricultural workers in Fort Bend Co., TX. Richard, Mingo, Millis, John, Burt (or Burk) Mitchell and their relatives Beverly and Annie Holmes all lived in Sugar Land. Richard, Mingo, John, and Beverly were sharecroppers, Millis was a blacksmith, Burt was a farm laborer. Jack Adams hired Adeline Brevard. She was a servant in Stafford Point where Isaac and Wes Marshall were farm workers. Fort Bend Co. population: 1800 white, 5400 black. In Houston a grandson of Leo Mitchell, Richard McCray (McCrae), drayman, lived near wholesale druggist Matthias Conklin. McCray’s daughter Mary Jane became a teacher.
1876 John Mitchell, born in Fort Bend Co., Texas, is Lowell’s father.
1880 Lou (Louisiana?) Marshall, born in Fort Bend Co. is Lowell’s mother, Lou Jennie Mitchell. Her parents are Wesley and Haldy Marshall. In this year Lowell’s father, John Mitchell, lived with his mother Vergil and stepfather Philip Marshall. Both Marshall families, as well as Adeline Brevard Willis and husband Austen Willis, lived in Pct. 3, Fort Bend Co., TX. Richard (Dick) Mitchell and his son Dick were farmers and close neighbors in Dist. 48, Fort Bend Co. SC-born Jack and Jenkin Holmes were farmers in Dist. 49. In Pct. 1, household of farmer James Holmes and wife Annie included widowed laborer Marshall Foster.
1882 Edward H. Cunningham purchased the Sugar Land property from Kyle and Terry families. He established Imperial Sugar Mill, employing formerly enslaved African American laborers.
1882-85 Mitchell and Holmes families moved from Fort Bend Co. to Harris Co., TX.
1887 Wesley Marshall married Lucy Lewis in Fort Bend Co., TX. Wesley is Lowell’s maternal grandfather. Lowell’s maternal grandmother Haldy must have died by this date.
1889 Wesley Marshall married Adeline Brevard Wellis (Willis) in Fort Bend Co., TX.
1892-95 In Houston, Clarence Mitchell lived with John Mitchell and worked for wholesale druggists Conklin, George, and Gaines, 1892-94. Matthias Conklin lived near and may have employed Leo Mitchell’s grandson Richard McCray, drayman, in 1870. John Mitchell boarded with Beverly Holmes. Both men worked as draymen for James Bute, paint and wallpaper supplier, Phoenix Lumber, 1894-95. John Mitchell and Lou Jennie Marshall married in 1895.
1900 John and Louisiana Mitchell were farmers in Harris County. Louisiana Marshall was ward of Dave and Betty Jones in Fort Bend Co. John, Millis, and William Mitchell, lived with their widowed mother Hariette at 1315 Buckner in Houston. Wesley Marshall, farmer, and Adeline Willis Marshall, servant, moved from Fort Bend Co. to Houston before Sept. 8 Galveston storm, according to Adeline’s 1938 oral history in Texas Slave Narratives. Beverly Holmes and wife Annie lived with niece Lewella Mitchell, at school.
1901 Lowell Paxter Mitchell was born to John and Lou Jennie Mitchell in Bellaire, TX.
1910 John and Lou J. Mitchell were paying the mortgage on their farm in Bellaire, TX. Their household included their children Amelia, Artensie, Lowell, Gladys, Inez, and Raymond. Their son Clarence was born in 1911 and daughter Deborah in 1914. Lowell worked on family farm. Wesley and Adeline Marshall lived in the same Harris Co. precinct as the Mitchell family.
1920-30 Lowell Mitchell attended school in Houston where Rev. Earl Leonard Harrison, pastor of Antioch Baptist Church (1922-30), was his mentor. With the help of Rev. Harrison and Antioch church members, Lowell received a scholarship to attend Bishop College in Marshall, TX. He graduated from Bishop and applied for further study at Union Theological Seminary. Lowell was first in our family to earn college degree.
1930 Jennie Mitchell, widowed farm owner, lived with her children Raymond and Deborah and grandchildren Ernest McCode, Retha Sephus, and Marie Foster. Jennie’s son Raymond worked on the family farm. Her daughters Gladys and Deborah worked as domestic servants. Deborah Mitchell also was counted in the household of her older sister Gladys, wife of Dempsey Cotton. He worked as a porter at a garage. Widow Adeline Marshall lived at 3449 Elgin Ave. in Houston with her grandson James H. Lawson and his wife Idella (Adella, Odella). Lowell Mitchell’s mentor at Antioch Baptist Church in Houston, Rev. E. L. Harrison, was called as pastor to Shiloh Missionary Baptist Church in Washington, D.C. Lowell enrolled in Union Theological Seminary.
1931-33 Lowell Mitchell, graduate of Union Theological Seminary in Richmond, Virginia, was associate pastor to Rev. E. L. Harrison of Shiloh Baptist Church in Washington, D.C.
1933-38 Rev. L.P. Mitchell was pastor of High Street Baptist Church in Danville, VA and Zion Baptist Church in Harrisburg, PA. In 1838 Clarence Drake of Federal Writers Project interviewed Adeline Marshall at her home, 3514 Bastrop St. in Houston. Adeline was the widow of Wesley Marshall, Lowell Mitchell’s maternal grandfather.
1938-40 Called to be pastor of Mt. Gilead Baptist Church in Fort Worth, Rev. L. P. Mitchell returned to Texas with his PA-born wife and daughter. Mitchell family lived at 1054 Terrell Ave.
1941-42 Rev. L.P. Mitchell resigned from Mt. Gilead to be pastor of Greater New Hope Baptist Church at 1515 Kennedy St. in Fort Worth, TX.
1944 Lowell took his wife and daughter to visit his mother Lou Jennie Mitchell, his brother Clarence, and other relatives on the family farm in Bellaire.
1950 Mitchell family moved to 1321 E. Morphy St. in Fort Worth, TX. Lowell’s daughter enrolled at Talladega College in AL, where she met her future husband.
1966 L.P. Mitchell was a delegate to national convention of the NAACP in Los Angeles, CA.
1969 Lowell Paxter Mitchell died in Fort Worth, TX on 26 October 1969.