African-Native American Genealogy Forum
Slavery in the Five Civilized Tribes
I have been doing research since year 2000, and slavery was not a pretty picture. I feel that freedmen descendants want to be identified as by bloods for the purpose of obtaining citizenship today. To be a mixed blood as I see it was an insult carrying a title of being illegitimate. The mother was always enslaved.
There were intermarriages with the by bloods and I think highly of those marriages because at least it was recognized (Creeks). But, again the enslaved wife was always identified as a slave and she and her children were placed on the freedmen roll and the husband on the by blood roll.
Whether a mixed blood or not the freedmen were citizens of their particular tribe and were placed on the Dawes rolls and anyone searching for their families today should consider looking for them as citizens in the tribes mentioned on the Dawes rolls.
A freedmen being a mixed blood is not to be proud of considering how the mixed blood came about through slavery.