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AfriGeneas Slave Research Forum

Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860

Beau Bowen wrote a fascinating report on how one census enumerator in Marshall County, MS in 1860 "created" his own racial catgory of what amounted to "Free White Mulattoes", to reflect the actual racial categorizing being used in the community at that time. The article was posted on the Web before, but has disappeared. Beau has now given permission for publication here at AfriGeneas as indicated below.

Since the posting on this forum will expire with time, perhaps David or VKN can see that it is posted also in a more durable location at AfriGeneas.

Here is what Beau sent:

The Marshall Mulattoes:
An Index to Free Individuals with Non-Standard Racial Designations on the
Federal Census for Marshall County, Mississippi, 1860
Copyright 2002 by Beau Bowen

Permission is hereby granted for publication of this article, complete and unaltered, on the AfriGeneas web site, for the personal use of the viewers. Duplication, redistribution, and commercial use is prohibited without the prior written consent of the copyright holder. All rights reserved.

Beau Bowen may be contacted at: P O Box 1118, Elkton, MD, 21922-1118. He is the author of The Southern McClatchey Family: The Descendants of John McClatchey in America (manuscript). He discovered the Marshall Mulattoes while researching his own family, the McClatcheys, who are among those listed with non-standard racial designations on the census.

Introduction. While researching my own family history I was startled to discover my ancestors listed on the 1860 federal census for Marshall County, Mississippi, listed as 'free white mulattoes' -- a non-standard racial designation for the times. In examining the census I discovered a large number of other individuals enumerated this way as well, all in all about a thousand individuals had this non-standard racial designation applied to them, out of a total of approximately thirty thousand free residents in Marshall County. Through other sources I knew my family had Native American connections and after careful evaluation I concluded the enumerator was attempting to account for people of mixed red and white ancestry on a form that presumed everyone was black or white.

The problem. Family researchers debated with me what the designations meant and what they said about our families. Theory can be debated until we are blue in the face, but the answers -- if anything as provocative as 'race' has an answer -- will be found in the lives of the people. However, the 1860 census for Marshall County, Missisippi, was not available in transcript or photocopy from any source I contacted. In order to study these people it is necessary to start by preparing a list of the people so designated.

Marshall county of 1860 took in parts of what is now Tate and Desoto counties, and enumerated over thirty thousand individuals, of which only about one thousand have non-standard racial designations, mostly located in southwestern Marshall County (1860 boundary). The listed individuals were located in a rough square with its northeastern point at Holly Springs and its southwestern point near Tyro. (Tyro is now part of Tate County but was in Marshall County at the time of the enumeration.) Only individuals with non-standard designations are included in my index; this means that many of the families listed below are incomplete because members of the household who were not designated as mulatto were not included. No free blacks were encountered in this area, the handful of individuals apparently counted as 'colored' were among the individuals with non-standard racial designations and are annotated in the list below.

Census Background. The United States Federal Census for 1860 provided worksheets to the enumerator. At the top of the worksheet was a place to fill in the post office for the area being enumerated, as well as the date of the enumeration and the name of the enumerator. The body of the worksheet featured lines which were numbered and subdivided into various columns for dwelling place, family, name, age, gender, color, occupation, value of real estate, value of personal assets, birth place, and notes about schooling, marriages, deaf, blind, insane, convicts, etc. The column for 'Color' was subdivided into three columns headed 'White,''Black,' and 'Mulatto.'At the bottom of the page were subtotals for number of colored men, white men, colored women, and white women, with totals for coloreds and whites. There was no designation available for other kinds of persons, Chinese and American Indian were not added until the 1870 census. All persons listed on the Population Schedule were free people, slaves were separately enumerated on the Slave Schedule.

Transcription process. I had a rental copy of the microfilm to work from at the Family History Center near my home, that facility did not have the ability to make copies from microfilm. Since I was copying the record by hand onto a yellow legal pad I resorted to the expediency of listing names only, along with post office box, enumerator's name, and page on which they occurred. This omits a significant amount of family information as many families had members who were not listed as mulatto along with family members that were so listed. A small number of families were chaotically rendered on the original with different family members being listed with no color, mulatto, white, or colored. Any person who was listed as mulatto, regardless of age, is included in this index. Some are children, and some are employees or spouses, as well as the usual heads of households.

Particulars of the census. Only one enumerator in Marshall County listed a significant number of individuals with non-standard racial designations: William Clark. He indicated race by making a hash mark in the appropriate subcolumn for color. He omitted hash marks for individuals that were presumably white, only blacks and mulattoes received a marking. His handwriting is neat and legible, the hash marks very clear. There were only one or two markings that were in doubt as to whether they indicated a black or mulatto person, these are annotated. Most names were perfectly legible, but a small number were unclear to the transcriber and are so marked. Clark did not always indicate the post office at the top of the page, it is assumed therefore that they are continuations of the previous pages. A few pages were annotated by the enumerator as 'continued,' but this does not account for all pages lacking a post office designation. Names are listed in the order they occurred on the microfilm, they are not alphabetized. In the case where the same name appears more than once it is because that is how it appeared on the original. In some cases an age check indicates two different individuals with the same name, but others are less clear.

In an unusual addition, Clark wrote 'agent for' with several entries. It is not clear if the agents are separate individuals with the same or similar names, or if the same agent was listed multiple times in connection with various individuals; it may be that Clark was attempting to indicate the information about the enumerated persons was given by a third party rather than the individual themselves. This is an important detail, federal censuses are of very uneven quality and errors abound, either because of ignorance, carelessness, or bias on the part of the enumerator, or due to mistakes or withholding of information by the people being enumerated. When enumerators could not get information from the family itself, they often contacted neighbors or other people. The addition of 'agent' notations support the idea that Clark was a meticulous and careful enumerator, and that on the whole his information can be taken as a conscientious effort at recording the truth as he knew it. Even so, all information contained in the census must be corroborated and expanded by information from other sources. The 'free white mulatto' listing, while provocative, only serves to point to a topic that needs to be researched in detail, and is not by any means the final word on the identities and lives of the people so listed.

The free white mulatto designation. As indicated above, three colors were officially listed on the 1860 census: white, black, and mulatto. Under normal circumstances, the blacks and mulattoes should have been totaled together as 'coloreds,' in modern times these free coloreds are referred to as 'free people of color.' However, the vast majority of persons listed as 'mulatto' by Clark were totaled with the whites. For example, page 6 of the census listed thirty-nine persons, nineteen were listed as mulatto and twenty were listed with no color and hence presumed white. At the bottom of the page the totals were thirty-nine whites and zero coloreds. This article therefore refers to such people as 'free white mulattoes.'

Historical issues of race. It seems plausible that in Mississippi on the eve of the Civil War, persons who could have passed for white would have done so, that is to say, they would not have allowed themselves to be listed as anything other than 'white' if they could have avoided it. That these people were listed as free white mulattoes seems to indicate that they were accepted as 'white' by their communities but were known to have non-white ancestry. It seems equally plausible that if a person were known to have African ancestry he most likely would have been totalled with the 'coloreds' regardless of his place in society. Clark's free white mulatto designation appears to be the best fit for families who were mixed European and Native American ancestry.

Historical issues of class. The role of class was explicitly stated by some writers in the antebellum period as affecting racial designations; 'gentlemen' with known non-white ancestry were considered 'white' while 'tradesmen' with the same degree of non-white ancestry were considered 'colored.' It may be therefore that the high economic standing of some of these families protected them from a 'colored' designation, that in other words their money was more important than their ancestry. Nonetheless, some wealthy families were listed as 'colored.' Page 24 lists W. A. Jefferies, planter, with a personal estate valued in six figures -- one of the wealthiest individuals enumerated in Marshall County -- yet he is enumerated as a 'colored mulatto,' one of only a handful of people to be so designated.

Theories. Though it is outside the scope of this work, my research shows that some of the families enumerated below had significant Native American connections. Though I have contacted only a few family researchers so far I have turned up additional accounts of (unverified) Native American ancestry for other families on this list as well. These preliminary investigations do not even begin to do justice to the large number of people and the complex issues of ancestry and race involved; the reader is cautioned against making assumptions about the ethnic identity of any person on the list without careful research and analysis. Yet verifying even a small number of individuals on the list below as having Native American ancestry would be highly significant, Mississippi in 1860 returned a census listing only two individuals in the entire state as 'Indian.' If subsequent research bears out the theory of Native ancestry for any of these families then the same research tools may be applied elsewhere to discover 'hidden Indians,' people whose Native ancestry has been erased by subsequent record-keepers.

Individuals Listed as Free White Mulattoes on the Marshall County, MS, Census, 1860, with annotated exceptions.

Page 1 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
M. J. Coxe
Jerry Wofford
Jas. H. Benton
Nancy Benton
Sallie Benton
Daniel Wofford
W. H. Coxe
Henry Wyatt
Lois Wyatt
Susan Wyatt
Daphne Wyatt
Mary Wyatt
Zachariah Wyatt
George Wyatt
Susan Milam
Benj. Milam
Adaline Milam
H. C. Steptoe
Lousa Steptoe
Ida Steptoe
B. A. Ford
Martha Ford
William Ford
Jno. M. Ford

Page 2 Post Office: Waterford Enumerator: William Clark
Saml. B. Brown
Byrd Benton
Alfred Brooks
Lydia Brooks
Louanna Brooks
Mary Brooks
Wm. M. Wilkins
Mary R. Wilkins
Martha M. Wilkins
Jno. J. Wilkins
M. F. Wilkins
Sarah Wilkins
Wm. P. Miller
J. W. Wooten
Sarah Wooten
A. J. Wooten
Martha Wooten
M. McKinnon
Mrs. Saml B. Brown

Page 3 Post Office: Waterford Enumerator: William Clark
Wm. Jameson
Elizabeth Jameson
Taylor Walker
Mary Walker
James Walker
Margaret Walker
David Biles
Miss P. Nevill
Angus McCauley
Peter Vick
Elizabeth Vick
R. S. Greet
Angus McCauley
Mrs. J. Howell
Susan Farris
Martha Howell

Page 4 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
J. M. Howell
O. P. Howell
A. Dean
Susan Dean
Thomas Turmage (Talmage?)
Naomi Turmage (Talmage?)
Miss M. Isabell
R. McNinch
R. P. Harris
Rebecca Harris
Martha Harris
David Bratton
Mrs. M. K. Hardin
Richard F. Hardin
Thos. Y. Coxe
R. H. Peel
Jane Peel
David Lawman
Mary J. Lawman
S. M. Logan

Page 5 Post Office: none (Chulahoma continued?) Enumerator: William Clark
R. H. Abbott
W. C. Abbott
D. D. Landerson
Elizabeth Landerson
James Knighton
Walter Jenkins
Wiley Jackson
Harriet Jackson
Eliza Jackson
Joseph Dean
Elizabeth Dean
Elizabeth Dean
Raphel Dean
Louisa Dean
Manerva Dean
Millie Lawyer

Page 6 Post Office: none (Chulahoma continued ?) Enumerator: William Clark
Hendall Wood (Kendall?)
Mary Wood
Hendall Pryor
J. E. Dean
Hannie Dean
Wm. Taliaferro
Eliza Taliaferro
Ira Scott
Wm. T. Skidmore
H. McClatchey
Eliza McClatchey
J. H. McClatchey
M. W. Skipp
M. A. Skipp
Ben. McNinch
John Nicholson
Elizabeth Nicholson
Sarah Nicholson
Mary Nicholson

Page 7 Post Office: Tallaloosa Enumerator: William Clark
Richard Thomson
Nancy Thomson
L. D. Thomson
Thomas S. Mason
Mary J. Mason
Robert Glover
Kate Glover
L. R. Geers
Louiza Geers
Wm. J. Peterson
Isabella Peterson
James M. Peterson
Mrs. M. Hall
Jno. F. Griffin
Rebecca Parker
James Glover
Mary Glover
Jno. S. Cullis

Page 8 Post Office: none (Tallaloosa continued?) Enumerator: William Clark
Wm. Anderson
Mary Anderson
Mrs. H. Rice
R. A. McCully
Mary T. McCully
Lucinda McCully
Frank B. McCully

Page 9 Post Office: Tallaloosa Enumerator: William Clark
A. P. Armstead
Jno. D. Cullis
Jno. D. Armstead
Sarah Moore
Jno. W. Richmond
M. B. Richmond
Frances Ragsdall
Henry Parker
Nancy Parker
Joseph Woods
Sarah A. Woods
Matthew Parish
Mary Parish
Sarah F. Parish
Wm. N. Parish
Matthew Parish
W. T. Marr
Cornelius Brumley
Isabella Brumley
William Brumley
Faliny Brumley

Page 10 Post Office: Tallaloosa Enumerator: William Clark
Jno. R. Denty
Mary A. Denty
Nathl. W. Denty
Rufus K. Byrd
H. C. Wallace
M. C. Wallace
Monteray Wallace
Margaret Wallace
D. P. Brundage
J. L. Brundage
Robert F. Wooten
M. J. Wooten
Jas. D Kilgrove
Louisa Kilgrove
Mary E. Kilgrove
Geo. M. Kilgrove

Page 11 Post Office: none (Tallaloosa continued?) Enumerator: William Clark
Nathl. Winningham
M. J. Winningham
Wm. Howard
Mary Howard
Sallie A. Howard
James Howard
Mary F. Howard
Elizabeth Howard
William Howard
Josephine Howard
Benj. Ragsdall
Quigley Jolly
Mary J. Jolly
Jno. P. Meek
Ann Meek
Jno. S. Synco (Lynco?)
Amanda Synco (Lynco?)
Benj. F. Scott
Kate Scott
Martha E. Scott

Page 12 Post Office: none (Tallaloosa continued?) Enumerator: William Clark
Greene W. Bunn
William Ragsdall
Benj. Ragsdall
Julia Daumavent ?
James Daumavent ?
Martha Daumavent ?
M. W. Bradley
Samuel McClain
Isabella McClain
Louis A. McClain
Joseph McClain
Catherine McClain
James H. Coleman
Thos. McKey (1)
Mrs. M. McKey
Mary Chatham
Malinda H. Chatham
Thos. McKey
Emily Best
Margaret Best

Page 13 Post Office: Wall Hill Enumerator: William Clark
Isaac Dodson
Sallie A. Dodson
J. W. Summer
M. S. Summer
Wm. H. Tucker
Robt. L. Tucker
Thos. C. Redding
J. C. Redding
S. W. Redding
F. W. Redding
M. A. Redding
Geo. A. Strickland or Strickham
M. A. Strickland or Strickham

Page 14 Post Office: Wall Hill Enumerator: William Clark
Willis House
Nancy House
J. W. Hayley
Geneva Hayley
Wm. H. Harris
M. W. Harris
Wyatt H. Jones
Cornelia Jones
P. B. Baker
Wm. F. Baker
Mrs. C. F. Baker
Wm. F. Baker

Page 15 Post Office: Wall Hill Enumerator: William Clark
D. L Wilson
M. E. Wilson
J. W. Turner
Elizabeth Turner
Thomas Turner
Bradford Turner
Mary Turner
Jas. W. Saunderson
M. E. Saunderson
Jno. S. Campbell
A. L. Wilson
M. C. Wilson
Joseph Davidson
Walter Bernard
Helen Bernard

Page 16 Post Office: Wall Hill Enumerator: William Clark
Albert Coleman
Jno. H. Barnett
M. Barnett
Nancy Barnett
Caladonia Baker
Jno. H. Wall
Julia S. Wall
Volentine Sanderson
Wm. Wall
Tilpha Wall
Jno. Harris
M. Harris
Jesse M. Harris
Jno. S. Blackwell
Wesley C. Blackwell
Sarah R. Blackwell
Nancy E. Blackwell
G. H. Walker
Sarah Walker
Elijah Walker
Anastasia Walker
Anna V. Walker
Mary Longmire
Aravazenza ? Longmire
Wm. M. Longmire
Margaret Longmire

Page 17 Post Office: Wall Hill Enumerator: William Clark
Jno. S. Longmire
J. B. Faver
Robt. Harper
Wm. H. Corwin (per J. B. Faver, agt.) [Annotation in original.-Beau]
Louiza J. Corwin
Mary A. Corwin
Thos. B. Fort
Sarah Fort
Sallie C. Williams
Wm. A. Marshall
Geo. A. Wilson
Mary M. Wilson
Robt. Brown
Sarah Brown
Mrs. E. J. Howze
Geo. A. Howse
W. D. Howse
S. B. Howse
J. W. Howse

Page 18 Post Office: Wall Hill Enumerator: William Clark
Mrs. M. Murry ?
G. A. Howze
Mrs. A. G. White
Robt. M. White
Jno. M. Meddling
C. S. Meddling
Abraham Perry
Mrs. M. Perry
J. J. Milam
C. J. Milam
Benj. Boling
Mrs. M. Boling
Mrs. M. Burton
Jno. Burton

Page 19 Post Office: Holly Springs Enumerator: William Clark
Jno. Sims
Jno. Lamb
Jno. T. McKinney
Sarah O. McKinney
J. M. Jefferies
Ann Jefferies
Mrs. L. Jefferies
Saml. Word
Thos. L. Sullivan
June L. Sullivan
A. Houston
Wm. G. Jefferies
Mary E. Jefferies
H. Hartgravis
Mrs. M. M. Hartgravis
D. J. Shirley
L. M. McKinney
Jas. McKinney
Milton McKinney
Rufus McKinney
Edward McKinney
Felix McKinney
Marjis Harper
Wm. A. Coleman
F. S. Coleman
C. D. Harris
W. F. Harris
Joseph B. Harris
M. J. Harris

Page 20 Post Office: Holly Springs Enumerator: William Clark
Elizabeth Harris
Sallie Hardester
Thos. B. Coleman
M. E. Coleman
F. Diggs
J. W. Diggs
Nancy A. Diggs
Mary C. Diggs
D. J/Y (?) Nonnelly
M. E. Nichol
Rachael Nichol
John Nichol
Milus Nichol
Greenwood Nichol
Louisa Stark
N. F. Scruggs
E. E. Scruggs
W. F. Scruggs
Emma Scruggs
Marcus Scruggs
S. W. McHam ?
M. S. Birding
M. L. Scruggs
Mary E. Scruggs
Jno. E. Scruggs
W. T. Scruggs
Thos. S. Barding

Page 21 Post Office: Tallaloosa Enumerator: William Clark
Chas. Yarborough
S. B. Yarborough
Wm. Byrd
June Byrd
Alfred Faulkner
Amanda Faulkner
Jona. Faulkner
John Faulkner
M. F. Woods
S. M. Woods
Wm. D. Woods
June B. Woods
Edw. Woods
Mary Woods
Lucy Rolls
Thos. Bell
H. M. Bell

Page 22 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
M. Alexander
Rachael Alexander
Geo. Still
F. Still
E. A. Still
Wm. Still
Hazeltine Still
Mulers ? Jones
Mrs. C. Jones
Mrs. A. Wooten
Priscilla Wooten
Jno. Wooten
Mary Wooten
B. Sugg
H. J/Y? Sugg
R. Hayley
P. Hayley

Page 23 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
Rou ? W. Wooten
Mrs. S. Wooten
Mary J. Wooten
Robt. F. Wooten
P. H. Wooten
Kate A. Wooten
Inda ? Wooten
J. R. Wooten
W. D. Peterson
Mrs. S. Peterson
Mary Peterson
Alice Peterson
Wm. M. McKie
M. J. McKie
J. A. Sibley
Mrs. T. Sibley
D. H. Mins ?
T. Mins ?
S. Payne
Mrs. E. Payne

Page 24 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
W. A. Jefferies [see note]
Sallie Jefferies
Percy Jefferies
Jesse F. Davis
H. G. Davis
Ann E. Hayley
Wyatt Eppes
Mary Eppes
Wyatt Eppes
P. H. Jenkins
Mary Jenkins
Hugh McRae
Mrs. C. McRae
M. M. Donnald
Christina Donnald
Sarah Donnald
Louis Phillips
H. S. Phillips

[Note: This page had all persons totalled as whites, then scratched out and totaled with the coloreds. This page totaled 18 colored males and 22 colored females, for a total of 40 people, meaning even people who were not marked as mulattoes were totaled with the coloreds. Some individuals on this page were extremely wealthy individuals -- W. A. Jefferies, planter, listed real estate worth $16,000.00 (sixteen thousand dollars) and personal property valued at $100,000.00 (one hundred thousand dollars). Several other 'colored' individuals had assets in the five figure range.--Beau]

Page 24 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
The following individuals had no color marked, but were totalled with the coloreds. See preceeding note.
[The Payne family was started at the bottom of page 23, and were marked 'continued' by the enumerator. The family members on the page 23 were totaled as whites, whereas the family members on page 24 were totaled as colored.--Beau]
S. Payne
Jno. F. Payne
Jas. T. Payne
Mrs. E. Routt
Mary E. Davis
M. G. Eppes
Julia C. Eppes
Mrs. Anderson
Fred D. Anderson
Henry Jenkins
Wm. Jenkins
Edward Jenkins
Fanny Jenkins
Phillip Jenkins
Jno. McRae
Alexander McRae
Mary McRae
Dancius? McRae
Elizabeth McRae
Charlotte Phillips

Page 25 Post Office: Wall Hill Enumerator: William Clark
Wm. Young
Sarah Young
L. W. Wilson
C. M. Wilson
A. L. Wilson
N. J. Wilson
Clara E. Wilson
Roberta E. Wilson
Wm. Marshall
N. Newsom
Mrs. E. Newsom
Alfred Y. Newsom
W. C. Flack
Susan Flack
A. Y. Gillespie
Mrs. C. Gillespie
William Gillespie
Nancy Gillespie
Sallie Gillespie
Martha Gillespie
Joseph B. Gillespie
H. C. Gillespie

Page 26 Post Office: Wall Hill Enumerator: William Clark
Francis Geary
Mrs. N. Geary
Benj. Vaughn
Jas. Harper
Charlotte Harper
Jno. P. Sarton ?
Frank Hancock
Mrs. M. S. Boyd
Jno. T. Powers
Mrs. A. E. Powers
Jno. P. Minor
A. A. Minor

Page 27 Post Office: Wall Hill & Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
Mrs. A. E. Bowen
Jno. Sharp
Mary Y. Sharp
Jno. W. ____ (Sharp or Woods?)
Mrs. S. Woods
Sarah Gillespie
Wm. H. Hancock
Mrs. E. Hancock
Nancy King
L. Burns
Jno. M. Strickland
E. J. Strickland
Levi Fowler
M. E. Fowler
T. J. Holcomb
Ellen Holcomb
E. Wall
Mrs. L. Wall
W. T. Gallaway
E. G. Gallaway

Page 28 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
Jno. C. Lock
Susan Lock
Jno. Oldfield
Nancy Oldfield
Wm. B. House
Mary House
Jno. S. Coleman
Mary A. Coleman
Jos. A. Coleman
Maud Coleman
Abraham Job
Mary Job
Wesley Job
Abraham Wooten
Sarah Wooten
Jesse Carter
Nancy Carter
Richard Phillips
Mary W. Phillips
Wm. Y. Phillips
T. Y. Sharp

Page 29 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
Thos. B. Parker
Mrs. R. Parker
Leonidas Parish
Mary A. Parish
Robt. McKie
Jasper Jones
Emma Jones
W. Y. Stewart
J. D. Gordon
Mary A. Gordon
B. P. Cocke
A. M. Gordon
Mary R. Gordon
Mrs. N. J/Y? McKie

Page 30 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
D. M. Davis
June Davis
C. S. Bowen
Q? M. Bowen
J. S. Waldron
L. A. Waldron
B. N. Alexander
L. P. Alexander
G. W. Gill
Owen Wynne
Wm. Freeman
Jno. S. Freeman

Page 31 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
Mrs. V. W. Street
S. A. Street
W. R. Moore
Maria Moore
Mary E. Moore
Mrs. E. Stewart
Edw. W. Norfleet
E. M. Norfleet
J. P. Dromogoole
Moses Echols
Sarah B. Echols
Jas. McAlexander
Mrs. M. McAlexander
Richard McAlexander
Parmelia McAlexander
J. A. Barksdale
Jno. L. Meddlers ?
M. C. Meddlers ?
Louisa Meddlers ?
Mary L. Meddlers ?

Page 32 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
J. C. Bailey
E. A. Bailey
J. D. Reneau
Sarah A. Reneau
Lucinda Reneau
J. A. Miller
Mary S. Miller
Lundon H. Miller
Nathl Smith
Mary Smith
Henry Smith
Ann Smith
J. A. Wilkins
T. C. Stone
M. J. Stone
Henry C. Nichols
Sophia Nichols
Sarah Booker
Mary Booker
B. A. Booker
Caroline Booker

Page 33 Post Office: Chulahoma ? Enumerator: William Clark
James Booker
Andrew Nichols
Lucy S. Nichols
Winfield S. Nichols
R. B. Alexander
Sarah M. Alexander
Mrs. Mary Meek
Jno. Meek
A. B. Casey
Mrs. N. Casey
Emily Casey
Elizabeth Pryor
Wm. H. Cathey

Page 34 Post Office: Chulahoma ? Enumerator: William Clark
Wm. P. Greene
Mrs. E. Greene
Burton J. Greene
Saml. M. Cocke
D. C. Cocke
Francis Wallace
Benj. A. Wallace
S. S. Jefferies
Mary J. Jefferies
J. Adcock
Lucinda Adcock
Mrs. M. S. Cherry
James P. Cherry
L. Johnson
J. J. Wilkins

Page 35 Post Office: Chulahoma ? Enumerator: William Clark
W. D. Jarrett
Ann A. Jarrett
B. A. Smith
Mrs. J. A. Oswald
T. B. Oswald
Edw. Godson
J. Hassell
David Biles
Benj. F. Hall
T. P. Hall
Joseph Hall
F. Jarrett
Susan Jarrett
Mary A. Jarrett
Thos. Goose
S. B. Goose
W. Wright
Nancy Wright
Jno. Killough
Sarah Killough
R. A. Bowen
Sarah Bowen

Page 36 Post Office: Waterford Enumerator: William Clark
Sarah A. Killough
Mrs. N. Hawkins
William Hawkins
Missouri Hawkins
James M. Hall or Hull
M. M. Hall or Hull
R. H. Malone
L. B. Malone
Laura Carpenter
Wm. Langford
Mrs. M. Langford
A. A. Worton
R. B. Patteson

Page 37 Post Office: Wyatt Enumerator: William Clark
Henry Jameson
James Jameson
Garett Jameson
D. M. Crum ?
Mrs. M. Crum ?
Elizabeth Crum ?
Jos or Jas Crum ?
Jos. H. Gulley
Victoria Gulley
G. B. Region
June Region
S. A. Anderson
Chas. Haftcock
W. J. Gilpin
S. L. Gilpin
G. A. Gilpin
Harriet E. Gilpin
Jno. Denton
Mary Denton

Page 38 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
E. H. Miller
M. R. Miller
Alfred Miller
Virginia E. Miller
James Garrett
Lewis Newson
Wm. Wooten
G. G. Austin
James T. Austin
John A. Austin
A. B. Holt
J. D. Holt
M. E. Holt
M. L. Holt
Jesse Shaw
Mary Shaw
Frank Shaw
M. H. Shaw
James Shaw

Page 39 Post Office: Wyatt Enumerator: William Clark
Jno. Shaw
Olivia Shaw
Mrs. E. Leeton ?
Felix Cole
Thos. Edding
Mary Edding
Mary Hall or Hale
Jno. W. Billingsly
Mary Billingsly
E. J. Billingsly
June Billingsly
H. Billingsly
Martha Billingsly

Page 40 Post Office: Wyatt Enumerator: William Clark
Jesse Martindale
R. S. McGee
M. L. McGee
Jno. A. McGee
M. L. McGee
Saml. Simpson
H. W. Simpson
Benjamin F. Patton
E. E. Patton
Mary E. Patton
Rhoda Patton
Goon Childress
Wylie Childress
Jno. W. Smith
Mrs. N. Smith

Page 41 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
W. G. Hamilton
Mrs. D. or P. Hamilton
Sarah A. Hamilton
Thos. W. Durham
Mary Durham
Young Snipes
Mary A. Snipes
Nancy Bolton
S. McCummock or Cammock
Jos. or Jas. R. Sommers
Jos. or Jas. A. Alexander
M. E. Alexander
Olivia Farmer
S. T. Cocke ?
Saml. Cocke ?
Mrs. D. Cocke ?

Page 42 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
Jno. Hayley
S. P. Hayley
Jos. or Jas. Adkins
M. A. Adkins
J. P. Stone
E. J. Stone
Agnes Stone
M. P. Stone
Wm. Jackson
Mrs. H. Jackson
James Jackson
A. C. Fesmire
Mrs. M. Fesmire
W. H. Turner
R. P. Bowen
James Bowen
James Waddell
Mrs. E. Echols
Wm. Bolton
Lurkin Echols
Mrs. J. A. Echols

Page 43 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
J. W. Hill
B. R. Hill
Anna A. H. Hill
Thos. P. Hill
W. T. Berryman
Sarah Berryman
Sarah H. Berryman
Jno. J. Berryman
Thos. B. Danforth
Mrs. L. Darwin
Oscar Darwin
Wm. R. Darwin
Victoria Luce
William Luce
Elihu Luce
Richard S. Lucas
June C. Lucas
Martin P. McVey
Sarah McVey
Sarah McKie
B. F. McKie
W. F. Hyer
W. Y. Cannon
S. N. Cannon
R. M. Martin
V. A. E. Martin

Page 44 Post Office: Chulahoma ? Enumerator: William Clark
G. C. Garrett
Elizabeth Woods
G. F. Taylor
Robt. G. Sharp
Mrs. S. C. McKie
Jas. or Jos. L. Mubray or Mabray
Martha T. Mubray
Parkham Bolton
Sarah Bolton
Wm. Tinny ?
Sarah Tinny ?
Wm. A. Tinny ?
Sarah J. Tinny ?
Martha A. Tinny ?

Page 45 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
Andrew Conrad
Mary Conrad
Thos. Jefferies
Thos. J. Coleman
Greene Coleman
Mrs. E. Coleman
Mary Beazley
Wm. N. Gant
Kate A. Gant
Wm. H. Gant
Texanna Gant
Wm. Brown
Wm. Haynes
Jas. A. Brizbay ?
Mrs. S. Brizbay
Sally Brizbay
Jno. H. Aiken
Ann Aiken
R. S. Aiken
Nancy E. Aiken
Wm. T. Aiken
James W. Aiken
Robt. B. McKie
Mrs. Dalpie
R. J. Bowen
Mrs. C. D. Bowen

Page 46 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
G. W. McCollum
M. McCollum
Jno. Balfour
Elizabeth Balfour
Calista Hogg
W. Q. Bloodworth
Mrs. E. Bloodworth
Denton O'Dell
F. Rolling
A. H. Burdine
Caroline Burdine
Albert Burdine
Mrs. P. Rogers
C. Z Rogers
Mary Clark
Michael Island
Thos. McCarty
M. Nooney ?
David Wall
Mrs. C. Wall

Page 47 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
Mrs. E. W. Harris
Johnson Harris
John Harris
Christianna Harris
E. W. Harris
Henry Harris
Mary S. Harris
Robert Harris
Henry Wall
Mrs. A. Wall
Thos. S. Ellis
Sarah Ellis
Harriet Ellis
Benj. F. Ellis
Octavia Ellis
Susanna Ellis
Joseph Still
Mrs. E. Still
Mary E. Martingale
Sarah Martingale

Page 48 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
J. C. Tucker
Mary E. Tucker
J. W. Ford
R. W. Ford
Jno. C. Ford
Ann Thompson
Jno. P. Threat
Mary Threat
Thos. W. Threat
Sarah J. Threat
Columbus Threat
Mary E. Threat
Jas. or Jos. M. Threat
Amanda Threat
Geo. C. Nicholson
Mary M. Nicholson
Susan J. Nicholson

Page 49 Post Office: Tyro Enumerator: William Clark
Mrs. C. Sanders
Jno. H. Sanders
Jno. R. Sanders
Henry W. Sanders
W. Y. Sanders
Mary B. Sanders
Letitia J. Sanders
Wm. B. Sanders
Robt. C. Sanders
Martha A. Sanders
Henry Durley
Betsy Durley
E. Wm. Durley
Delila A. Durley
Nancy E. Durley
Geo. W. Durley
A. J. Page
Mary C. Page
Saml. Kelsey
R. T. Hibbler
A. H. Haltum
M. C. Haltum

Page 50 Post Office: Tyro ? Enumerator: William Clark
Mrs. M. E. Garrett
Robt. Huie ?
Mary G. Huie ?
James Huie ?
Edw. F. Barnes
Jno. Farris
Jesse Carter
E. M. Carter
Mary L. Carter
Allen Carter
Saml. H. Craig
Ann E. Craig
Jno. H. Brown
Matilda V. Brown
Goen Childress
Orphia Childress
Jno. D. Childress

Page 51 Post Office: Tyro Enumerator: William Clark
Betsy Waldrop
Meday O. Sanders
Harriet O. Sanders
Robt. Sanders
Wm. Wynne
Jane Wynne
F. M. Minor
Sarah C. Minor
A. F. Minor
S. P. Martin
Jno. L. Raiford
Sally J. Raiford
Levi Warner
Jno. W. O'Neill
Jane K. O'Neill
Margaret S. O'Neill
James S. M. O'Neill
Mrs. S. J. Hassell
N. A. Hassell
J. S. Mays

Page 52 Post Office: Tyro Enumerator: William Clark
Jno. S. Adair
Mrs. H. Adair
Nancy J. Adair
Frances T. Adair
Andred J. Adair
Frances Adair
Rebecca Wright
J. M. Farriss
James Riles
E. C. Riles
J. C. Longston
Tyre J. Clark
M. W. Clark
Anna A. Clark
W. J. Flim
Wm. B. Bloodsworth
Frances Bloodsworth
Marion Bloodsworth
Lucy A. Bloodsworth
Noah Sesson
Mrs. L. Sesson
Mrs. Susan Sesson
Alice Askew
Nancy Askew
Robt. Freeman
Tabitha Freeman
Martha Freeman
Jacob W. Freeman

Page 53 Post Office: Tyro ? Enumerator: William Clark
Jackon Watkins
Mrs. C. Watkins
Emily H. Watkins
Jackson A. Watkins
Harrison Watkins
Marion Jones
Caroline Jones
Mrs. E. A. Ellis
David Ellis
Julia Ellis
Martha Ellis
Ann Ellis
James Hargis
Mary Hargis
Jno. C. Black
Caroline Black
Mrs. E. Baker
W. H. Thomason
Elivira Thomason

Page 54 Post Office: Tyro ? Enumerator: William Clark
Christopher Neely
Adam Rankin
Lucinda Rankin
Jno. H. Freeman
Tanny Freeman
Thos. W. Hargis
Mary Hargis
Mrs. M. Clanton
Elijah Clanton
Mille Clanton
T. G. Hunter
William Hunter
Elizabeth Hunter
Sarah Hunter
Aaron T. Hunter
Nancy T. Hunter
Mary Hunter
S. J. Dupuy
Mrs. N. Webber
Peter Freeman
Candis Freeman

Page 55 Post Office: Tyro Enumerator: William Clark
Saml. Patrick
Mrs. E. Patrick
Mary A. Patrick
Joseph Cathey
J. C. Cathey
Hiram McCurry
Nancy McCurry
Reuben McCurry
James McCurry
John McCurry
Wm. Freeman
Wiley Freeman
Mrs. S. Carmichael

Page 56 Post Office: Chulahoma Enumerator: William Clark
Calvin Falkner
Mrs. N. Warren
Chas. W. Anderson
M. E. Anderson
Clem. Jameson
Mrs. S. A. Kizer
Jno. W. Davis
Edw. Coleman
Hilda Coleman

Page 57 Post Office: Tallaloosa Enumerator: William Clark
Daniel Richmond
A. L. Richmond
Jas. or Jos. D. Kilgrove
Mrs. M. C. Kilgrove
Julia Kilgrove
Mary E. Kilgrove
George Kilgrove
John Powell
Eliza Powell
Henry Powell
Emily J. Powell
Mary A. Powell
Maria Sneed
Mrs. T. Langston

Page 58 Post Office: Tallaloosa ? Enumerator: William Clark
Wilson B. Parker
Josephine W. Parker
Mrs. Mary Hunt
William Compton
D. B. Compton
Elizabeth Wiasett ?
L. E. Compton
B. B. Brady
D. T. Shelby
Thos. J. Synco
Loretta V. Synco
Sarah Ragsdale
John R. Clark
Elizabeth Clark
Mary Clark
William Clark
Marion Mobley

Page 59 Post Office: Tallaloosa ? Enumerator: William Clark
W. E. West
Mrs. N. Ballard
W. Clark
Henry M. Gaines
Benj. F. Hull
Irving P. Hull
J. H. Hull
N. W. Briscoe

Gary 'Beau' BOWEN, P O Box 1118, Elkton, MD, 21922-1118; Email

Author: Notes on the Southern McClatcheys: Descendants of John McClatchey in America, looseleaf manuscript, 150 pgs, $19.00 postpaid, US addresses.

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"Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
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Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
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We know why they removed the list!
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Re: Whites discovering African ancestry
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Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860
Re: "Free White Mulattoes" in 1860 -PLEASE READ

18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
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