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AfriGeneas Genealogy and History Forum

Re: Could this be Will HAWKINS in 1900?


According to everything that I have read about Jim Crow Laws, an attempt was made by southern states after the civil war to start certain laws that were called 'black codes'(1865-1867). But the laws did not last because the federal government had passed laws forbidding this kind of activity. But a few years later, many of the laws forbidding black codes were applealed so that the Jim Crow laws could be started around in 1890's.

Excerpt from this website>>

"The so-called Jim Crow segregation laws gained significant impetus from U. S. Supreme Court rulings in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. In 1883, the Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional the Civil Rights Act of 1875. The 1875 law stipulated: "That all persons ... shall be entitled to full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement." The Court reviewed five separate complaints involving acts of discrimination on a railroad and in public sites, including a theater in San Francisco and the Grand Opera House in New York. In declaring the federal law unconstitutional, Chief Justice Joseph Bradley held that the Fourteenth Amendment did not protect black people from discrimination by private businesses and individuals but only from discrimination by states. He observed in his opinion that it was time for blacks to assume "the rank of a mere citizen" and stop being the "special favorite of the laws." Justice John Marshall Harlan vigorously dissented, arguing that hotels and amusement parks and public conveyances were public services that operated under state permission and thus were subject to public control."


In the late 1800's and around the beginning of the 1900's there were many black politicians who had been elected to many positions in our government. And in some cases, blacks prospered beyond whites. For example, the Black Wall Street of Tulsa Okla of 1921 that was burned to the ground by angry whites. I hear people talking about how blacks riot and so forth, but just a quick review of history would show that whites have rioted against prosperous black communities around the early 1900's way more than blacks have ever rioted against them.

My gggrandfather according to the records that I have found started registering to vote around 1880 or so up to around 1895. However, after that, I could not find any records of him registering to vote.

However there was a local politician by the name of S. S. Mincey who was a respected black Republican who was dragged out of his house and lynched in Montgomery County, Georgia in 1930. Beaten to death for political activities. At 70, Mincey was a successful farmer and longtime leader in the Republican Party. After he fell out with some white Republicans, he was abducted from his home by masked men and flogged to death. He is buried near my home town. You can read more about S. S. Mincey here>>

and here>>

So, Jim Crow was nothing more than a form of slavery. The killing of S. S. Mincey is just an example of the many blacks were 'put down' for trying to fight agianst the hatred.

I am not an expert on this so you can go to this web site to read more about it>>>


18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
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