AfriGeneas Western Frontier Forum
AFRO MEXICANS: IN MEXICO AND CALIFORNIA
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AFRO MEXICANS: IN MEXICO AND CALIFORNIA
By Alva Moore Stevenson
Scholars such as Ivan Van Sertima (They Came Before Columbus) assert that Egyptians and Nubians came to Mexico in the Pre-Columbian period (c.1200 BC). The Olmec civilization may be descended from or had contact with Africans. He cites as evidence the African facial features of the Olmec heads at La Venta, Tabasco and San Lorenzo. Van Sertima’s research is controversial and not widely accepted by mainstream historians. Those in the field would probably agree that Blacks who accompanied the conquistadors were the first persons of African descent in Mexico. One of the earliest was Juan Garrído who accompanied Hernán Cortes (c.1519) and participated in the fall of Tenochtitlan. Afro Mexicans in the 16th century fell into three categories: slaves; unarmed auxiliaries (servants and slaves) and armed auxiliaries such as Garrído who obtained their freedom. He was also credited with introducing wheat into the Americas. According to Matthew Restall (Black Conquistadors), “it is primarily after this date  that armed black servants and slaves begin to play significant military roles in Spanish conquest enterprises.”
The first Africans brought to Mexico as slaves came with the party of Pánfilo Narváez also in 1519. They replaced Indios in the early 1500s because of European-imported diseases that had decimated the indigenous population. In the period between the mid-16th and the mid 17th centuries, the numbers of Africans at times exceeded the indigenous population. In addition for a very short time more Africans were imported into Mexico than any other part of the Americas. As in other parts of Latin America, slaves resisted their oppression. These maroons or cimarrones were reported to have fled and settled in such places as Coyula, Cuaxinecuilapan and Orizaba. One of the more famous was Gaspar Yanga, reportedly descended from a royal family, who led a revolt on the sugar plantations of Veracruz in 1570. He led his followers into the nearby inaccessible mountains and kept the forces of the Crown at bay for many years. Unprecedented in Mexican history, the Crown acceded to a treaty in 1630 which included freedom for the Yanguícos; self-government; and a farmable land grant.
The Spanish-casta dichotomy gave way to a social dichotomy based on culture and economics and not race. To reinforce their exclusive class, a sistema de castas or caste system was instituted in Mexico as a method of social control. This was a hierarchical ordering of racial groups according to their limpieza de sangre or purity of blood. That is—their place in society corresponded to their proportion of Spanish blood. Cope says that the castas for the most part eschewed the sistema:
“[By the late 16th century] Africans and Afro-Mexicans created a ‘sphere of relative autonomy.’ Their unity and boundaries didn’t shield them from ‘ideological or structural oppression.’ Through these multiple identities they structured social relations and built boundaries of kinship and family. Multiple Black boundaries were characterized by interactions between ethnic Africans, Africans and Creoles, Negros, Mulatos, and Moriscos. In turn this reflected a wide range pf African and Afro Mexican identities. Persons of African descent were only united though contact with the
It should also be noted that Afro Mexicans such as Vicente Guerrero played critical roles in Mexico’s independence of August, 1821. A champion of rights for all regardless of color and the country’s second president; Guerrero was one of the signers of the Plan of Iguala The Plan led to Mexico’s freedom from Spain and gave all men and women--regardless of color-- full citizenship.
Martha Menchaca (Recovering History, Constructing Race) discusses the reasons behind the northward migration of Afro Mexicans and other non-white Mexicans in the early 19th century:
“Blatant racial disparities became painfully intolerable to the non-white population and generated the conditions for their movement
In the period up to 1848 and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the sistema “which was designed to ensure the maintenance of caste…quickly disintegrated on its northern frontier, allowing persons of African ancestry remarkable social fluidity.” Like the castas in that time period in Mexico City, early African American Californians were “uninterested in the complexities of the sistema de castas.” It did not dictate daily life. The ambiguity of the sistema made possible the success of Afro-Mexicans Andres and Pio Píco. Píco was the last Mexican governor (1831, 1845-46) of California. A “consummate politician and ‘revolutionist’ “ Pio Píco was also a wealthy landowner, military commander and Los Angeles city councilman (1853). His brother Andres represented California at the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga (1847) ending the Mexican War in California. He also served as state senator (1851, 1860-61). Not only in California but across the southwest, “afromestizos were part of the population that founded Nacogdoches, San Antonio, Laredo, La Bahía, Albuquerque, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara.”
Several of the pobladores recruited by the Spanish Crown to settle Los Angeles in 1781 were of African descent. Of the afromestizos in the group some hailed from Rosario, Sinaloa—a town where many of the residents were of African descent. Indeed the Píco family also hailed from Rosario. Among the afromestizo families who became prominent landowners and politicians in Southern California during the late 18th-early 19th century were the families of Luís Quintero; María Rita Valdez; Juan Francisco Reyes and José Moreno.
In contemporary Mexican society the sistema no longer functions overtly but Afro Mexicans remain largely marginalized and occupy places at the lowest rung of the economic ladders. Bobby Vaughn, a scholar of Afro Mexican Studies, asserts that issues of race in Mexico have “been so colored by Mexico’s preoccupation with the Indian question that the Afro Mexican experience tends to blend almost invisibly into the background, even to Afro Mexicans themselves.” The national focus on Mexican identity as a dichotomy of Spanish and Aztec-Mexica-Maya or indigenismo-mestizaje effectively excludes them. Anani Dzidzienyo (No Longer Invisible) characterizes it as follows, “mestizaje ignores Blacks to such an extent that it would make all Blacks mestizos of some sort.”
Since the mid 1990s, Afro Mexicans from thirty African-descent areas are convening in what is called an “Encuentro de Pueblos Negros” or a gathering of Black towns. Led by Father Glyn Jermott they are organizing, in his words, "… to relate our common history as black people, to strengthen our union as communities, to organize and open realizable paths to secure our future, and to resist our marginalization in the life of the Mexican nation." Their movement parallels similar ones involving African-descended peoples in Guatemala, Belize and the Honduras.
1. Bennett, Herman Lee. Africans in Colonial Mexico: Absolutism, Christianity Afro-Creole Consciousness, 1570-1640. Indiana University Press, 2003
2. Bennett, Herman Lee. Lovers, family, friends,: The formation of Afro Mexico, 1580-1910. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1993.
3. Cope, R. Douglas. The Limits of Racial Domination: Plebeian Society in Colonial Mexico City, 1660-1720. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.
4. Dzidzienyo, Anani. “Conclusions.” No Longer Invisible: Afro-Latin Americans Today. Minority Rights Group, ed. London: Minority Rights Publications, 1995.
5. Gibbs, Michele, “African Heritage Strong in Mexico. Afrikan.net Newsboard. Website: http://www.mumia.org/wwwboard/messages/354.html
6. Menchaca, Martha. Recovering history, constructing race : the Indian, Black, and white roots of Mexican Americans. Austin: University of Texas, Press, 2001.
7. Restall, Matthew. “Black Conquistadors: Armed Africans in Early America” The Americas. 57.2 (2000) 171-205
8. Van Sertima, Ivan. They Came Before Columbus. 1st Edition. New York: Random House, 1976.
9. Vincent, Theodore G. The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero, Mexico’s First Black Indian President. University Press of Florida, 2001.
Websites on Afro Mexicans and Afro Latinos
Africa's Legacy in Mexico
Black Indian Mexico http://hometown.aol.com/fsln/index.htm
Black Mexico Home Page http://www.afromexico.com/
Organization of Africans in the Americas (OAA) http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/6876/ Site devoted to the African-descent community in the Americas, “The OAA is established for charitable and educational purposes to improve the life chances and conditions of communities of African descent with special regard for those populations who speak Spanish and Portuguese.” Includes listing of OAA publications, articles activities.
Latin American Network Information Center http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/region/african/ Excellent portal to a whole range of websites on the African Diaspora in Latin America as well as the Caribbean.