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AfriGeneas Western Frontier Forum

Post #9 - CAAP
In Response To: Post #8 - CAAP ()

California’s African American Pioneers
Developed and Submitted by Guy Washington
National Park Service
1111 Jackson Street, Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607
510-817-1390
January 3, 2005

Smith, Henry – Williams, J. N. (Mrs.)

Smith, Henry
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and was a pioneer of Rough and Ready. #15, p.103

Smith, John
He was a black man from Philadelphia who once was a Massachusetts seaman.
He was a friend of Dr. Lewis C. Gunn of Philadelphia.
Their friendship began in 1853.
Gunn and Smith might have shared antislavery contacts in Philadelphia.
Smith carried photographs to Philadelphia for Gunn during his 1853 visit.
Gunn checked on money sent to Smith’s wife and four children.
In 1852 he mined at Murphy’s Camp in Calaveras County. #3, p.63

Smith, John E.
He was a traveling showman who exhibited trained horses in the Pacific states.
He arrived in San Francisco in the early 1860s. #45, p.16

Smith, William
In 1857 he married Harriet Davis. #1

Smith, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Smith, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Fiddletown. #15, p.103

Smith, William A.
He was one of a group of black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Philip Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp.54-55

He came to California in 1857 and later married Harriett Davis.
He gave freely of his time and money and was involved in all activities concerning equality for blacks.
He was employed for a number of years as an officer in the custom house in San Francisco. #15, pp.105-106

Smithea, Fielding
He was a subscriber to Frederick Douglass’ Paper who went to Vancouver Island in Canada. #3, p.188

He was the leader of the Colored Convention from Oroville. #3, p.243

Spotts, Fielding
On September 2, 1856 the financial committee for Mirror of the Times was established.
It included Nathan Pointer, W.D. Moses, Charles Mitchison, Reverend Barney Fletcher, Charles B. Smith, F. Spotts and Henry F. Sampson. #3, p.220

He was a cooper by trade.
In 1859 he left San Francisco for British Columbia with his wife Julia and their son.
They lived for a number of years on the north end of Salt Spring Island.
They lived for a time in Saanich, where he built a log cabin and served as a school trustee. #58, p.88

Spotts, Fielding William
He was two-years old when his parents moved from San Francisco to British Columbia. #58, p.88

Spotts, Julia
She left San Francisco in 1859 with her husband and two-year old son Fielding William.
The family relocated on Salt Spring Island in British Columbia. #58, p.88

Spotts, Mary Cecilia (nee Pierre)
When she was a very young child, she moved to British Columbia with her father Thomas Pierre.
She was educated at Angela College in Victoria.
She married Charles Spotts, son of Fielding and Julia Spotts. #58, p.88

Speight, H.E.
This black person came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of San Jose. #15, p.103

Stacey, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Stanley, James
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Stark, Louis ( -1895)
He was the mulatto son of a southern slave owner.
He worked as a barber on Mississippi River steamboats before moving to California.
Here he met and married Sylvia Estes, whose freedom was purchased by her father.
In 1860 the couple moved to Vancouver Island with their three-year old son Willis and Sylvia’s parents.
He brought ten or fifteen cattle to Salt Spring Island and settled there with his family. #58, p.105

He purchased his freedom for $1,500 and moved to Vancouver Island in 1859.
The Starks left Salt Spring Island in 1875 and moved to the Cranberry district near Nanaimo.
He died in the early spring of 1895 after falling over a cliff. #58, p.106

Stark, Willis
He was the son of Louis and Sylvia Stark.
He was three years old when his parents moved to Vancouver Island in 1860. #58, p.105

Stark, Sylvia (nee Estes)
She was born enslaved as Sylvia Estes in Clay County, Missouri and she died at age 106 in Canada.
The Estes moved to California, where the father purchased freedom for his family from their owner.
In California the young woman met and married Louis Stark.
In 1860 the couple moved to Vancouver Island with their three-year old son and Sylvia’s parents.
They settled on Salt Spring Island where they raised cattle. #58, p.105

She and her husband and their three children left Salt Spring Island in 1875
After the death of Louis in 1895, she returned to Salt Spring Island at Ganges Harbor. #58, p.106

Starkey, James Rylander
He was a black man from North Carolina who purchased his freedom and moved to New York.
His fear of slave-hunters there caused him to move to California, where he arrived in either 1852 or 1853. #3, p.19

He tried to purchase his son and daughter who were held in bondage in North Carolina. #3, p.22

He was a San Francisco leader of the Colored Convention. #3, p.21

En route to California he took passage on Pocahontas from New York to Nicaragua, where he landed in Greytown, at the mouth of the San Juan River. #3, p.40

He helped establish the Atheneum Institute in San Francisco.
He was involved with antislavery activity in the East.
He worked with Jacob Francis, William Newby, Mifflin Gibbs, W.H. Harper and E.R. Johnson.
He subscribed to Frederick Douglass’ Paper upon arrival in San Francisco and correspondence from him appeared in the paper. #3, p.100

In August, 1859 he spoke at a gathering of Tuolumne County blacks that included people from Columbia, Angels Camp and Jamestown. #3, p.256

He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention selected in 1865.
The committee included F.G. Barbadoes as president, Solomon Peneton as vice-president, Henry Hall as corresponding secretary, James R. Starkey as treasurer, Shadrack Howard as recording secretary, William Yates, Henry Collins, William H. Hall, James P. Dyer, J. Madison Bell, Edward W. Parder, David W. Ruggles and John F. Meshaw.
He was a member of the Publicity Committee for Equality Before the Law and this committee included William H. Yates, James R. Starkey, R.A. Hall, James P. Dyer, F.G. Barbadoes, S. Hall and Philip A. Bell. #15, p.63

“Stephen”
He was a black man who escaped from slaveowner O.R. Rozier of Sonora.
He escaped from the steamer Urilda while it was in San Francisco in order to avoid a return to Alabama.
Rozier took an ad announcing his escape in the San Joaquin Republican on September 12, 1852.
Rozier took a room at the St. Charles Hotel in San Francisco while waiting for word about Stephen. #15, p.72

Stevens, Joseph
He was a black man who operated a hairdressing salon in San Francisco.
In 1869 it was located at 300 Samsone Street, in the American Exchange Building.
It was both an residence and business location. #27, p.12

Stewart, Priscilla
She was a black woman from California who expressed gratitude in a poem written to white benefactors in British Columbia. #58, p.67

Stockton, George
He many have been the only black pressman in the state to work for a white newspaper.
He worked for the Marysville Express. #3, p.112

Stokes, Darius (Reverend)
He was a free black man from Baltimore who, according to a footnote in the Black Abolitionist Papers, helped hundreds of freedom seekers in the Chesapeake area to escape in the 1840s. #51, p.237

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p. 102, p.105

He was a black man from Baltimore who came to California early during the gold rush. #3, p.95

He wanted an African Methodist Episcopal Church in Sacramento. #3, p.108

He was a leader in California who worked with Reverend T.M.D. Ward, John J. Moore, Barney Fletcher, J.B. Sanderson, Reverend John J. Jenifer, Richard Hall, F.G. Barbadoes and Phillip A. Bell to achieve rights and opportunities for blacks in the state. #15, p.256

Street, William
H was a former enslaved man who had been owned by C.B. Strode.
They were companions since childhood, like their fathers and grandfathers.
Street’s death led to an integrated funeral procession in 1855.
The pallbearers were some of the most prominent white men in San Francisco. #3, p.107

Strickland, Wilford R. ( -1927)
He may have been West Indian, as his mother died in Smallfield, Jamaica.
He was an officer in the West Indian Benevolent Society.
He worked as a porter at 62 Halleck Street in San Francisco during the 1860’s. #27, p.13

Sugg, Mary
She was born into slavery in Johnson City, Missouri.
She came to California by overland route in 1851.
She met future husband William at a social function in Tuolumne County.
They later moved to Sonora, where they were married in 1855.
In 1857 William built an adobe house on Theall Street in Sonora, where they raised eleven children.
In 1877 William returned to Merced, but Mary remained in Sonora. #44, p.589

Sugg, William
He was born into slavery in 1828 at Raleigh, North Carolina.
He came to California by wagon train before 1852.
He worked as a muleteer and bull-whacker on the journey.
He and his traveling companions settled in the Merced area.
He obtained his freedom and began working in the harness business.
He met future wife Mary at a social function in Tuolumne County.
They later moved to Sonora, where they were married in 1855.
In 1857 William built an adobe house on Theall Street in Sonora, where the couple had eleven children.
In 1877 William returned to Merced, while Mary remained in Sonora. #44, p.589

Suggard, George
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Colusa. #15, p.103

Sullivan, James
He was a black man originally from Virginia.
He lived with his family in the Fourth Ward, a middle-class white neighborhood surrounding Washington Square in San Francisco.
Charles Mercier’s family also lived there.
He had real estate valued at three thousand dollars. #3, p.105

Summers, Ellard
He was a black man from South Carolina who died on March 31, 1854 at age 35.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 295. #50, p.9

Susand, Nathaniel C.
He was a black man who ran a barbershop at 640 Clay Street in San Francisco during 1869. #27, p.11

Talchan, Moses
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and was a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Tappin, E.L. (Reverend)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Taylor, Addie (Miss)
She was a black girl who was held as a slave in Hansonville in the mountains.
She was working as a sheepherder when Robert Anthony contacted her.
He freed her by driving her in his wagon to Colusa.
They later married and had a son who eventually worked for the one of the Hearst papers.
Allen Pinkard and Thomas Scott witnessed the couple’s wedding. #15, pp.90-91

Taylor, Alex
He was a black man who came to California with his wife in 1849. #15, p102

Taylor, Alex (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California with her husband in 1849. #15, p.102

Taylor, Alexander C.
He was a black man who boarded with Ann C. Woods Lombard at 1006 Washington Street in San Francisco.
He married Sarah Miles, vocalist daughter of Henry Miles.
The couple went east for musical training and they toured the U.S. and Europe.
He also served as accompanist for the Hyers Sisters of Sacramento. #27, p.1

Taylor, James
He was a black man who traveled overland to California. #3, p.21

He hoped to earn money to purchase freedom for his wife and seven children. #3, p.67

Taylor, Lewis
Brought to California by his owner, A.G. Simpson, he was given his freedom in Butte County. #55, p.18

Taylor, Monroe
He was a black man who managed the Atheneum Saloon along with James Riker.
The place was owned by a group of black leaders and it was located at 273 Washington Street, First Floor, in San Francisco.
It was the scene of social gatherings, dances, card playing and drinking.
The second floor housed the Atheneum Institute.
Mary Ellen Pleasant was one of the saloon’s backers. #3, p.100

Taylor, Thomas
He was a black man who was on the board of directors for the California Savings and Land Association. The officers were Henry M. Collins (President), Peter Anderson (Vice President), E.R. Johnson (Secretary), William H. Hall, Edward Cain, Thomas Bundy, Benjamin Harris, Thomas Taylor, G.W. Dennis (Board of Directors). #3, p.265

Tenny, M. (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sutter’s Creek. #15, p.103

Thomas, J.H.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849.
He was the editor of Mirror of the Times. #15, p.102

Thomas, John
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Thomas, Joseph
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Thomas William M.
He was a black teen from New York who died on December 24, 1854 at age 15.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 171. #50, p.9

Thompson, (Mr.)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville.
He was the body-servant of General Wade Hampton.
His wife Sarah also lived in San Jose and Pacific Grove. #15, p. 102

Thompson, George
He was a black man from Massachusetts who died on October 28, 1850 at age 28.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.9

Thompson, Jacob
He was a black man who was a porter at 327 Bush Street in San Francisco in 1869. #27, p.15

Thompson, Sarah
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville.
She was the first black woman in San Jose.
Her husband, Mr. Thompson, was the body-servant to General Wade Hampton.
She lived for forty years in Grass Valley and later in Marysville.
In 1919 she was a resident of Pacific Grove. #15, p.102

Thompson, Theresa M. (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California from Camden, New Jersey during pioneer days.
Her father, William Brown, was a seaman before opening a laundry in Sacramento.
Her husband worked for a number of years at the customhouse in San Francisco.
She later became a resident at the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored People in Beulah. #15, p.106

Thompson, William
He was a black miner who came from Massachusetts.
He lived along the Tuolumne River in 1849 and was the partner of William Henry Garrison. #3, p.90

Thorn, Elizabeth
She was a free black woman from New Bedford who came to California to take a teaching job. #1

She was a free black woman who came from New Bedford
In 1854 Miss Thorn opened a private school with fourteen students at her home in Sacramento.
It was the first elementary school for black children in Sacramento.
After about one year she got married and gave up teaching.
Reverend Sanderson came up from San Francisco to take over the school. #3, p.176

Elizabeth Thorn Scott opened the first private school for black children in Oakland in 1857.
When she died in 1867 her school closed, but a public school opened with Mary Sanderson as teacher. #43, p.13

Tidball, M.T.
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Princeton in Colusa County. #15, p.103

Tilghman
He was a black barber from Marysville who migrated to Victoria, British Columbia. #3, p.246

Tilghman, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman from Marysville who was married to a barber.
She was killed in the state’s first stagecoach robbery.
Tom Bell’s gang attacked it between Camptonville and Marysville.
Mrs. Tilghman was killed while riding in the outside back seat. #3, p.84

Tolbert, Henry (1823-1901)
He was a black man born in Milford, Delaware.
He worked as a tailor in Philadelphia and he arrived in San Francisco in 1853.
He mined for a while at Michigan Bar. #27, p.9

“Tom”
He was a black man who accompanied Dr. Snelling from Missouri to California on the Santa Fe Trail.
He handled overland duties. #3, p.36

“Tom”
He was an enslaved man who came to California as part of a Mississippi-Georgia company.
Other enslaved members of the party were “Joe” and “Little West.”
They came to the state via the Death Valley route. #3, p.31

Toogood, George
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Tooms, Ellen (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Tower, Jesse
He was a black man who was born in North Carolina.
He was forty years old in 1860.
In 1860 he was a miner at a quartz operation in San Diego County, where he may have discovered a vein of ore. #3, p.124

Town, W.E.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Suisun City. #15, p.103

Townsend, Jonas H.
He was born in Pennsylvania.
In 1865 he worked as a teacher in Galveston, Texas.
He did reconstruction work and died there in 1872. #27, p.4

He was a member of the San Francisco Atheneum Association, along with William Newby. #27, p.3

He was a journalist who came to California as part of an all-black mining company.
He left New York in November 1849 in a party that included Newport Henry. #3, p.14

He was formerly the editor of the New York Hyperian.
He headed for Panama on the ship Hampden. #3, p.39

He helped establish the San Francisco Atheneum Institute and he had been involved with antislavery activity in the East. He worked with Jacob Francis, William H. Newby, Mifflin Gibbs, James Starkey, W.H. Harper and E.R. Johnson. #3, p.100

He was the only California subscriber to the Pennsylvania Freeman. #3, p.190
He was a Colored Convention leader. #3, p.191

On September 27, 1855 he was part of a committee that signed a call for a Colored Convention.
The group included James Carter of Sacramento, J.H. Townsend, Peter “Anderson, William H. Newby, D.W. Ruggles and J.B. Sanderson, all of San Francisco. #15, p.55

He was a leader in a petition campaign in San Francisco for the right of testimony.
Other signers of the March 10, 1852 petition included Mifflin Gibbs and William Newby. #3, p.194

He signed a call for a Colored Convention to be held in Sacramento on November 20, 1855.
Other signers included Peter Anderson, W.H. Newby, David Ruggles and James Carter. #3, p.212

He made a statement on behalf of the Executive Committee of the 1855 Colored Convention. #3, p.218

Along with William Newby he established Mirror of the Times.
He had experience with editing a New York paper and he was one of five men on the publishing committee.
The others included H.M. Collins, William Newby, Reverend J.J. Moore and Nathan Pointer. #3, p.219

Trivett, Lester D.
He was a black man who was navigator on the steamer New World, which ran between San Francisco and Sacramento.
His knowledge of tides and currents made him invaluable. #46, p.146

Truax, Stephen
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sutter’s Creek. #15, p.103

Turner, William
He was a black man from New York City who died on September 27, 1851 at age 28.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 4, Lot 322. #50, p.9

Tyler, Charley
He was a young black man from Arkansas who worked with several farming and stock-raising families in Tulare County.
Indians killed him at Tyler Butte near Fish Springs in Inyo County. #3, p.124

Tyler, Louise (Mrs.)
She was a black woman (mulatto) who in 1864 was involved in a streetcar case in San Francisco
She, Mary Ellen Pleasant, Mrs. Bivens and Laura Clark tried to ride a car home from church one Sunday.
Being light-skinned, Tyler was allowed in the car, but the others were refused permission to ride.
A suit was brought and won by Mr. Brown and his daughter Charlotte.
She later lived in the Home for the Aged and Inform Colored People in Beulah. #15, p.65

She was born in Shasta County during pioneer days.
She later became a resident of the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored People in Beulah. #15, p.106

“Uncle Peter”
He was a black man who ran a restaurant on Powell and Pacific Streets in San Francisco. #3, p.96

“Uncle Peter”
He was brought to California from Missouri by his owner Napoleon Byrnes in 1859.
He earned his living by whitewashing buildings.
He remained close to the Byrnes family of Berkeley after he gained his freedom. #55, p. 18

Upsheer, John
He was one of the blacks who left California for British Columbia in the late 1850s. #15, p.78

Upshur, John
He was a black man who lived in San Francisco.
He migrated west as valet for politician William Gwin in 1854.
He left San Francisco to live in British Columbia, Washington state and Sacramento before returning to settle in San Francisco. #45, p.61

Usher, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Valentine, John T.
He was a black man who was employed as a domestic servant by Mary Ellen Pleasant at 920 Washington Street in San Francisco.
He worked with David Cloyd and Shirley Green. #27, p.2

Valle, Henry
He was a black man from Fredericksburg, Virginia who purchased his freedom from his owner upon his arrival in San Francisco. #1

He was a black man who came to California with his owner from Fredericktown, Mississippi.
He worked in the mines and paid $2,500 for his freedom and 2,000 for the freedom of his wife.
This amount was paid three years before the start of the Civil War.
He saved enough money for him and his wife to relocate to Ironton County, Missouri.
They lived there comfortably on the money he earned in California. #15, p.71

Van Blake, George
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of Vallejo. #15, p.103

Vaughn, Bill
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Vesey, E.W.
This black person came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Vosburg, Fritz James
He was one of the black owners of the Sweet Vengeance Mine in Brown’s Valley.
Other company members who worked the claim were Gabriel Simms, Abraham Freeman Holland, Edward Duplex, James Cousins and M. McGowan. #15, p.104

He was one of the black owners of the Sweet Vengeance Mine (1848-1854), located in Brown’s Valley. The other owners included Abraham Holland, Gabriel Simms and several others. #30, p.68

There was a claim jumping incident at the mine that was described in William Lloyd Garrison’s Liberator. Robert Purvis and William Wells Brown wrote the article. “Shortly after our arrival, a perfect deafening volley of shouts and yells elicited from Mr. Purvis the careless remark that ‘the Sabbath-day’s fight is apparently more serious than usual!’ Almost as he spoke there succeeded a death-like silence, broken in a minute by a deep groan, at the base of the long tom followed by the words, ‘My God, he stabbed me!’ Mr. Gabriel Simms gave an excited account of what had happened. He said that in a melee between Fritz Vosburg and a gang of white claim jumpers, Vosburg—who is a tall, majestic-looking Negro—had stabbed the leader of the claim jumpers and at the very moment, said Mr. Simms—with Abraham Holland at his side, and brandishing threateningly the long knife with which he had inflicted the wound upon the leader, was parading up and down the long tom unmolested. It seems that when the white leader fell, the other would-be claim jumpers, not prepared for such a staunch defense, were seized with a sudden panic and fled.” #30, p.69

Waddy, A.
He was president of a public meeting held on May 26, 1864.
William Burris and George W. Dennis were vice-presidents of the meeting.
They issued a call for a colored convention to secure the franchise for blacks in California. #15, p.62

“Walker”
He was a black man who came enslaved to California from Nashville as part of a Southern company.
He came with “John”, another enslaved man. #3, p.27

Walker, Evans
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.103

Ward, Harriet A.
She was the mother of Mary Frances Ward, who petitioned for her daughter to attend an all-white school.
The case of Ward v. Flood reached the California Supreme Court but the decision there was unfavorable to the Ward family. #58, pp.127-128

Ward, Mary Frances
In 1872 the parents of this twelve-year old black girl applied for her to be admitted to all-white Broadway Grammar School in San Francisco.
Taken to court after denial of the application, the case was not successful. #3, p.182

Ward, T.M.D.
He was a black man who came from Philadelphia to the West Coast.
He was instrumental in recruiting J.B. Sanderson from New Bedford. #1

He was a black man who came to California in 1854 from New Bedford.
He came to take over St. Cyprians AME Church in San Francisco.
Reverend Darius Stokes was his assistant.
In 1856 he was the highest-ranking black Methodist clergyman.
He organized a California conference of AME churches. #3, p.160

As a delegate at the 1st Colored Convention in California he introduced a temperance resolution, but it was rejected as not relevant to the purposes of the convention. #3, p.214

He was among the California blacks that did not migrate to British Columbia in 1858. #3, p.245

He served on a special committee selected by the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention.
The Executive Committee met in San Francisco during 1863 after passage of the Testimony Bill.
Solomon Peneton recommended the appointment of this committee at a Scott Street church meeting.
C. Wilson moved that a committee of three would be sufficient.
Elected were T.M.D. Ward as president, Peter Anderson as secretary, Alex Ferguson, J.B. Sanderson, F.G. Barbadoes, Shadrack Howard and William Yates. #15, p.60

Ward, William A.
He was a black man born in the West Indies.
In August 1859 he spoke at a gathering of Tuolumne County blacks from Columbia, Jamestown and Angels Camp.
He spoke favorably of emigration to Central America or Liberia. #3, p.256

Warren, William (“Uncle Billy”)
He was a black man who arrived in California in 1828, most likely as a runaway seaman.
He lived for eighteen years in California under Mexican rule and twenty-nine under American control.
He mined for gold in 1848.
In 1875 he died in San Jose, where he was known as “Uncle Billy.” #3, p.4

Wartham, Harriet
She was a black woman from Michigan who died on July 19, 1855 at age 32.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 160. #50, p.9

“Washington”
He was a black man who was enslaved to Franklin Stewart when he was brought to California.
Stewart had held him in slavery for seventeen years in Arkansas, Missouri and California.
He was granted his freedom at White Rock in Butte County on May 4, 1852.
At the time of release he was about 33 years old, with slight copper-colored skin. #15, p.86; #55, p.18

Washington, Frederick (1810?- )
He was a black man who was a native of New York.
In 1862 he was a ship’s steward who lived at 918 Washington Street in San Francisco.
Mrs. James Johnson ran the house at the corner of Stone Street. #27, p.3

Washington, Harriett
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Washington, Thomas H.
He was a black child born in California who died on May 28, 1857 at age 1 year, 7 months.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 29. #50, p.9

Washington, William
He was a black teen from Missouri who died on June 14, 1850 at age 14.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 5, Lot 294. #50, p.9

“Wash Strains”
He was a black man who was held in slavery on a ranch near Napa.
Other enslaved blacks on the ranch were Aaron Rice, Old Man Sours and Old Man Sydes.
John Grider of the Bear Flag Party provided these names to Delilah Beasley.
The men were the property of a slaveholder from Walnut Creek.
Reverend Thomas Starr King learned of their situation, went to the ranch and liberated the men. #15, p.91

Waters, Emory
He was a delegate from Nevada County at the Second Colored Convention in 1856. #46, p.84

Waters, Sam
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Waters, Shephard
He was a black man who came to California in 1850 and became a pioneer of El Cajon Valley. #15, p.102

Wefferfield, William
He was a black man who died on January 27, 1855 at age 45.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 245. #50, p.9

Wesley, John
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

White, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who helped liberate a number of slaves in San Jose.
Among those freed were Mr. and Mrs. William Parker.
She worked with Reverend Peter Cassey and Mrs. Harriett Davis to assist freedom seekers. #15, p.92

White, Aaron
In 1850 he was the possible co-owner of a black boardinghouse on Kearny Street in San Francisco, along with Sully Cox. #3, p.97

White, Alfred
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of San Jose. #15, p.103

He was one of a group of black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Philip Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp54-55

Members of the 4th Colored Convention held in October 1865 included “Peter” Bell and Andrew Bristol of San Francisco, James Floyd, A.J. White, G.A. Smith, S.J. Marshal, Peter Cassey and Mrs. William A. Smith, all of San Jose. #15, p.63

White, Henry
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Whiteside, (Mr.)
He was a black man who came to California with Mrs. Whiteside and became a pioneer of Redlands. #15, p.103

Whiteside, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California with Mr. Whiteside and became a pioneer of Redlands. #15, p.103

Whitfield, James Monroe (1822-1871)
He was a widely known 19th century poet and civil rights lecturer who, as an emigrationist, debated Frederick Douglass over colonization.
In the early 1860’s he moved to California and lived at 918 Washington Street in San Francisco.
He died in San Francisco. #27, p.2

Whitfield, J.W.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sutter’s Creek. #15, p.103

Whiting, James E.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Whiting, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of San Jose. #15, p.103

Whittaker, Hampton
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Wielrich, Ann (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Truckee.
She died, leaving twenty-five thousand dollars in the bank.
Her only heir was found one year later in Farmersville, Virginia. #15, p.103

Wiley, I.M.
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Colusa. #15, p.103

Wilkens, Charley
He was a black man who prospected for gold on the upper reaches of the Yuba River.
He was part of an interracial mining company that included Downie, Duvarney (a white lad), Wilkins, Albert Callis and three other blacks. #3, p.58

Willan, Jorge
His real name was probably George Williams.
He was a black man who was an early runaway sailor who took up the lumbering business.
Charles Brown employed him in 1842.
He was one of two black sawyers working in southern San Mateo County. #3, p.5

Williams (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Williams, Carpenter (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Williams, Eliza
She was a black woman from Missouri who died on August 28, 1854 at age 35.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 449. #50, p.9

Williams, Henry
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Williams, Ishmael
The 1860 census shows him residing in San Juan Township in Monterey County, where he was a merchant worth $10,000. #3, p.233

Williams, J.N. (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California with Henderson and Matilda Clark in 1856 and she became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102


18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
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