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AfriGeneas Western Frontier Forum

Post #8 - CAAP
In Response To: Post #7 - CAAP ()

California’s African American Pioneers
Developed and Submitted by Guy Washington
National Park Service
1111 Jackson Street, Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607
510-817-1390
January 3, 2005

Richard, Fortune – Smith, Harriett (Mrs.)

Richard, Fortune
He, Charles Mercier and Wellington Moses were selected as a delegation to interview British Columbia Governor James Douglas soon after their arrival in Victoria. #58, p.64

He served as a captain in the Victoria Pioneer Rifle Corps in 1861.
He wrote a letter to the colonial secretary of Vancouver Island, asking for financial support. #58, p.92

“Richards”
This black person from Maryland died on January 16, 1854 at age 56 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.8

“Richmond”
This black person from Missouri died on December 22, 1853 at age 65 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 419. #50, p.8

Ricks, Thomas A.
He was a black man from Los Angeles County who served as county signature collector in a testimony campaign.
He obtained petition signatures from whites.
Seventy-eight men were involved in collecting signatures. #3, p.201

Riker, James
He managed the Atheneum Saloon along with Monroe Taylor.
The place was owned by a group of black leaders, including Mary Pleasant.
It was located at 273 Washington Street, First Floor.
It was the scene of social gatherings, dances, card playing and drinking.
The second floor housed the Atheneum Institute. #33, p.100

He was a central figure in the San Francisco phase of the Archy Lee case, but he was not named in the work of the three colored conventions. #3, p.236

He was a black man who filed the writ of habeas corpus in San Francisco for the seizure of Archy Lee.
He also charged Charles Stovall with kidnapping for attempting to leave the state with Lee as a captive.
#58, p.56

Riley, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Watsonville. #15, p.103

Ringgold, George
He was a black man from Maryland who mined with fellow black George Smith near some Mexicans. #3, p.64

Ringold, William
He was a black man who was an officer of the Livingstone Institute, which was organized in 1860 as the West’s first attempt at secondary education for black children.
The money was returned to investors with interest in 1863 after the situation changed.
Officers were Barney Fletcher (President), Reverend Moore (Financial, Traveling Secretary), Trustees John A Barber, William Hall, James Sampson, William Ringold, David W. Ruggles, William A Carter, with Henry Collins and Nathaniel Gray (Treasurers). #27, p.7

Roberts, Lewis
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Robertson, Joshua
He was a black man who worked as a cook for Dame Shirley at Rich Bar.
Bacon was killed for his money by his Negro servant “Josh.”
Robertson was apprehended in Sacramento with part of Bacon’s gold on his person.
He was returned to Rich Bar where he was tried by miners, found guilty and hung. #36, pp.139-140

Robertson, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Robinson, Albert
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of El Cajon Valley. #15, p.103

Robinson, Ben
He was a black man brought enslaved to California and freed by owner Mrs. Robinson.
He was charged by the Vigilance Committee with arson, but the case was thrown out due to coerced confession. #3, p.106

Robinson, Elijah
He was a black man from Maryland who died on August 4, 1864 at age 56.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 1, Lot 95. #50, p.8

Robinson, James R.
He was a black man from Massachusetts who died on August 28, 1852 at age 50.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 125. #50, p.8

Robinson, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Red Bluff. #15, p.103

Through his efforts Miss Hestor Anderson and Miss Belle Grant were liberated in the last of 1868 or 1869. #15, p.92

Robison, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1848 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

He carried the mail between Stockton and the mines for Wells Fargo Express.
He worked for forty years in the firm that succeeded the Pony Express. #15, pp.48-49

He, J.B. Sanderson and Mr. Minor went armed into San Joaquin County and liberated slaves.
The men convinced the enslaved blacks of their friendship and then carried them to freedom. #15, p.92

Rodgers (Doctor)
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of Vallejo. #15, p.103

Rodgers, Artimisa (nee Penwright)
She was a black woman from Arkansas who was married to Daniel Rodgers.
She was the daughter of her mistress and a black man.
Neither she nor her children were ever held in slavery.
She was made to produce proof of freedom before being allowed to come to California. #15, p.87

Rodgers, C.A.
He was a black barber and doctor from Sacramento.
He was chairman of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence, which was a sub-committee of the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention. #3, p.241

Rodgers, Daniel
He was an enslaved black man who was promised freedom by his master, with the provisions to work in the mines and to pay $1,000 for freedom.
He met the provisions but the master didn’t give him legal freedom papers.
In the 1850s Rogers was forced to return enslaved to Little Rock, Arkansas.
A group of white planters aided him to achieve freedom.
They came up with funds for him to again pay for his freedom and they wrote a certificate stating he was a free man and a person of honesty and integrity.
In 1859 Rogers returned to California and Mary Ellen Pleasant may have supported him in business.
He was an active supporter of abolitionism and the Colored Conventions of California. #1

He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Watsonville. #15, p.103

He came across the plains in 1849 with his owner from Little Rock, Arkansas.
He worked in the mines in Sonora.
He worked during the day for his owner and at night for himself.
He paid the owner $1,100 for his freedom, but he was taken back to Little Rock and sold again there.
Leading white men of the town raised money and paid for his freedom. #15, p.71

He came to California with his master in 1849 and he worked in the mines.
He paid $1,000 for his freedom but he was not given a receipt or freedom papers.
He returned to Arkansas where his freedom was purchased in Dardanell, Yell County.
A number of white gentlemen paid for his freedom and gave him a certificate of freedom.
He was married to Atimisa Penwright, who accompanied him back to California. #15, p.87

In 1860 he returned to California from Little Rock, Arkansas and settled in Watsonville with his wife and ten children.
The Rogers and Derricks were the only black families in town and the two families intermarried.
The two men applied unsuccessfully for their children to attend public school with white students.
A white teacher was hired to teach their children. #58, p.124

Rodgers, Isaac
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Rodgers, Moses L
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

He was a black miner in California in 1849.
He was a mining expert and was considered one of the best mining engineers in the state.
He was also a metallurgist.
He owned a group of mines at Hornitos.
In 1919 his family still owned a few mines in the area. #15, p.105

He was an enslaved black man who came to California from Missouri.
He gained his freedom and did quartz mining in the Hornitos-Quartzburg region of Mariposa County.
He was an expert who superintended several mines after the Civil War.
He was a stock-holding superintendent of Washington Mine (1869), where he employed Chinese labor and took out one half million dollars in gold. #3, p.92

A Merced newspaper claimed “there is no better mining man in the State” in reference to Rodgers. #3, p.93

He married Sarah Quivers in the 1860s and they had five daughters. #44, p.590

In the 1860s he married Sara Quivers of Snelling, California and built her a home in Quartzburg.
Their daughters were named Adele, Elinor, Lulu, Vivian and Nettie.
Moses later moved his family to a new home in Stockton in order to take advantage of better school facilities.
The Rodgers home in Stockton still stands today. #15, pp.113-115

Rosand, C.H.
This black person died on April 30, 1853 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 7, Lot 103. #50, p.8

Ross, Eliza
She was a black woman who died on March 20, 1862 at age 28.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 7, Lot 315. #50, p.8

Ross, John
He was a black man who opened a used goods store in San Francisco in the mid-1850’s..
It was located on Pacific Street, just below Kearny and it was variously called Ross’s Exchange and Philadelphia House. #3, p.98

Rowen, Byron
He was a black man who came to California and, with Walter Rowen, he became a pioneer of San Bernardino. #15, p.103

Rowen, Walter
He was a black man who came to California and, with Byron Rowen he became a pioneer of San Bernardino. #15, p.103

Ruby, Reuben
He was a black man from Portland, Maine who was a friend of William Lloyd Garrison.

He was a supporter of Freedom’s Journal the first black newspaper in the U.S. #3, p.54

He traveled from Maine to New York to Panama and California and arrived in early 1849.
By April 1849 he had acquired $1,600 from four weeks digging on the Stanislaus River. #3, p.54

Reuben was born in 1798 in Maine.
In 1826 he and five other African Americans publicly condemned white churches for exclusion in Portland.
In 1828 he was active in the formation of the Abyssinian Religious Society
In 1834 he helped to incorporate the Maine Anti-Slavery Society. #24, p.192
He was connected with Portland Abyssinian Meetinghouse, which was a black church that harbored
freedom seekers.

Ruggles, David W.
He was the secretary of the New York Vigilance Committee and he was active in antislavery work.
He met Frederick Douglass, who was an escaped slave, in New York City. #5, p.340

He hid Frederick Doublass for several days in New York and Douglass married Anna, from Baltimore, at Ruggles’s home.
He directed Douglass to New Bedford when he learned of his experience as a ship caulker.
Doulgass was able to find work fitting out ships in the whaling business.
Ruggles was an officer of the Underground Railroad.
Eventually he went blind. #5, p.341

He was a black man originally from New Bedford. #28, p.157

He carried on his assistance to freedom seekers in competition with Mary Ellen Pleasant.
He was involved in the Archy Lee case, calling a meeting of black people at a church.
Whites also may have attended this meeting at which Ruggles urged those present to use legal means to free Archy. #28, p.137

He was one of a group of black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collin, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Philip Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp.54-55

He was a member of a committee on black public schools in San Francisco.
The group was made up of Collins, Anderson, Fletcher, Sanderson and Ruggles. #3, p.173

He signed a call for a Colored Convention to be held in Sacramento on November 20, 1855.
Other signers of the petition were Peter Anderson, J.H. Townsend, W.H. Newby and James Carter of Sacramento. #3, p.212

He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention selected in 1865.
The committee included F.G. Barbadoes as president, Solomon Peneton as vice-president, Henry Hall as corresponding secretary, James R. Starkey as treasurer, Shadrack Howard as recording secretary, William Yates, Henry Collins, William H. Hall, James P. Dyer, J. Madison Bell, Edward W. Parker, David W. Ruggles and John F. Meshaw. #15, p.63

He was an officer of the Livingstone Institute, which was organized in 1860 as the West’s first attempt at secondary education for black children.
Money collected was returned to the investors with interest in 1863 due to an improvement in the situation. The officers were Barney Fletcher (President), Reverend Moore (Financial, Traveling Secretary), John A. Barber, William Hall, James Sampson, William Ringold, David W. Ruggles, William A. Carter, (Trustees), and Henry Collins, Nathaniel Gray (Treasurers). #27, p.7

He was born free in Norwich, Connecticut.
He moved to New York and operated a grocery business form 1829 to 1833.
He helped organize the predominately black New York Committee of Vigilance.
Ruggles was the secretary when the society was begun on November 29, 1835.
He was actively connected with the antislavery movement, editing and writing articles and pamphlets.
His home at 67 Lipenard Street in New York City became a major station on the Underground Railroad. #6, p.222

He narrowly escaped one attempt made on his life by the captain of a slave ship. #6, p.223

On September 27, 1855 he was part of a committee that signed a call for a Colored Convention.
The group included James Carter of Sacramento, J.H. Townsend, Peter Anderson, William H. Newby, D.W. Ruggles and J.B. Sanderson, all of San Francisco. #15, p.55

Rushmore, Paul
He was a black man born in Georgia in 1829.
He served on General Zachary Taylor’s line in the Mexican War.
He drove the team of Colonel John Ward and James Douglass from Chihuahua to Los Angeles.
He was one of five black members of the Society of Mexican Veterans.
The other members were Peter Byers, George Diggs, Lewis G. Green and George Smith. #15, p.102

Russell, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Rymus, John
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

“Sam”
He was held enslaved in San Francisco in January 1851 when bystanders observed him being forced on board the steamer Columbus.
Antislavery friends got a writ of habeas corpus to free him but the constable could not find him on the ship. It is possible he was hidden on the ship by its crew.. #3, p.136

“Sam”
He was a young enslaved man from Missouri who came to California in 1849 with his owner.
He returned to Missouri against his will with his owner in 1851.
They went by way of New York, where he was informed that he was free as soon as he entered California. He took the former owner to court to recover $1,000, his share from the diggings. #3, p.71

Sampson, Henry F.
He was a black man who was brought enslaved by an Army officer to California, where he gained his freedom.
He purchased freedom for his brother and family.
On September 2, 1856 the financial committee for Mirror of the Times was established. It included Nathan Pointer, W.D. Moses, Charles Mitchison, Reverend Barney Fletcher, Charles B. Smith, F. Spotts and Henry F. Sampson.
He was active in the Colored Conventions and during the Civil War he worked at the U.S. Mint. #3, p.220

He worked with William Tecumseh Sherman at the bank of Lucas, Turner and Company, where he served as porter and learned to read and write. #3, p.99

He signed an 1862 petition for better education for black children.
Signers were J.B. Sanderson, Barney Fletcher, H.F. Sampson, Isaac Reed, John Kinney, Charles Smith, P. Anderson, J. Madison Bell, Samuel E. Burris, A.B. Smith and R.T. Houston. #3, p.176

He was enslaved to Colonel Chambers of Rapides Parish, Louisiana and came to California as his servant.
He was later employed by William T. Sherman at the banking firm of Lucas, Turner and Co. in San Francisco.
Before he could read and write he earned $100 a month.
After he was taught to read and write by bank-teller James Reilley, he earned $250 a month.
He used his earnings to purchase his own freedom and that of his brother and his family. #20, p.141

He was an officer of the Livingstone Institute, which was organized in 1869 as the West’s first attempt at secondary education for black children.
Money collected was returned to investors with interest in 1863 due to an improvement in the situation. Officers of the group included Barney Fletcher (President), Reverend Moore (fFnancial and Traveling Secretary), John. A. Barber, William Hall, James Sa mpson, William Ringold, David W. Ruggles, William A Carter (Trustees), and Henry M. Collins and Nathaniel Gray (Treasurers). #27,p.7

Samuel, Joshua
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Princetown in Colusa County. #15, p.103

Sanchez, Henry
He was a black man who was a native of Kingston, Jamaica.
Along with Beverly Dodson he was co-owner of a bootblack stand (Dotson and Sanchez) in San Francisco. It was one of two located at 348 Bush Street.
Mathew A. Phipps ran the other stand. #27, p.16

Sanderson, Jeremiah Burke
He was a black man from New Bedford who came to California in 1853 on the S.S. Sonora.
He was “an intellectual stalwart” among New Bedford abolitionists.
He began colored schools in California and fought for African Americans’ right to education. #1

Sanderson’s papers, including letters and photographs are held in the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. #2

He was a black abolitionist who came to California from New Bedford, where he worked with Frederick Douglass.
He worked alongside Biddy Mason in furthering black education in California.
He organized schools in San Francisco, Oakland, Sacramento and Stockton.
He often served as teacher until one could be found and trained.
He died in 1875. #4, p.130

He, Mr. Minor and Robinson of Stockton went armed into San Joachin County and liberated slaves.
The men convinced the enslaved blacks of their friendship and then carried them to freedom.
On June 3, 1872 he went with Sheriff T. Cunningham to Mr. Durham’s ranch near Stockton.
They transported slave girl Annie Randall to court and Judge Bonker released her to Sanderson. #15, p.92

On April 20, 1855 he made the following diary entry: “Today I opened a school for colored children. The necessity for this step is evident. There are 30 or more children in Sacramento of proper age and no school provided for them by the Board of Education. They must no longer be neglected, left to grow up in ignorance, exposed to all manner of evil influences, with the danger of contracting idle and vicious habits. A school they must have. I am induced to undertake this enterprise by the advice of friends and the solicitations of parents. I can do but little, but with God’s blessing, I will do what I can. #4, p.132, #54, p.247

On July 10, 1855 he wrote a letter to the Sacramento Board of Education asking for a permanent school.
Over 80 black children were of school age and the city only had facilities for 30 students. #54, p.247

In 1854 after a statewide meeting of Massachusetts blacks he migrated to California. #3, p.24

He arrived in California in 1854 from New Bedford.
In 1857 he organized the Little Pilgrim Church in San Francisco.
This was the third AME church in town.
It was located on Scott Street, between Pacific and Broadway.
The 1859 congregation of St. Cyprian’s joined this group.
Sanderson achieved considerable renown as an educator of black children.
He fought for the black community to assure their share of public school tax funds. #3, p.160

He helped establish the Franchise League to secure testimony rights for blacks on August 12, 1862.
Organizers of the league included F.G. Barbadoes, William H. Yates, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson, R.A. Hall, Peter A. Bell and J.B.Sanderson. #15, p.54

He was one of a group of black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Philip Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp54-55

In 1859 he took over as teacher and principal of the Negro Children’s School in San Francisco. #3, p.169

In 1860 he was a member of the committee on black public schools in San Francisco. .
The committee was composed of Collins, Anderson, Fletcher, Sanderson and Ruggles. #3, p.173

In 1864 he became the first principal of a new school for black children in San Francisco.
The school was located on Broadway Street near Powell Street. #3, p.174

On September 27, 1855 he was part of a committee that signed a call for a colored convention.
The group included James Carter of Sacramento, J.H. Townsend, Peter Anderson, William H. Newby, D.W. Ruggles and J.B. Sanderson, all of San Francisco. #15, p.55

In 1862 he signed a petition for better education facilities for black children.
The petition was signed by J.B. Sanderson, Barney Fletcher, H.F. Sampson, Isaac Reed, John Kinney, Charle Smith, P. Anderson, J. Madison Bell, Sameul E. Burris, A.B. Smith and R.T. Houston.
Sanderson taught at the Sacramento black school until his return to San Francisco in 1857. #3, p.176

He served on a special committee selected by the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention.
The Executive Committee met in San Francisco during 1863 after passage of the Testimony Bill.
Solomon Peneton recommended the appointment of this committee at a Scott Street church meeting.
C. Wilson moved that a committee of three would be sufficient.
Elected were T.M.D. Ward as president, Peter Anderson as secretary, Alex Ferguson, J.B. Sanderson, F.G. Barbadoes, Shadrack Howard and William Yates. #15, p.60

In 1859 he served as teacher and principal of the San Francisco black school.
He served in this role through the Civil War years.
He eventually lost the position of principal to a white woman.
In 1868 he taught at the black school in Stockton.
The school was a part of the Stockton public education system. #3, p.181

He gave an elequent speech at the August 1, 1854 celebration of the 1833 British Emancipation Act.
In his talk he outlined the history of antislavery parties of England and the United States. #3, p.191

On February 18, 1857 he received a letter from William Nell, abolitionist leader in Boston.
In the letter Nell asked about Shadrack Howard, David Ruggles, Edmund Phelps, J.H. Townsend, Mifflin Gibbs, Jacob Gilliard and Frederick Barbadoes. (Sanderson Papers, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley)

He wrote a letter to his wife Catherine on February 27, 1857 explaining his reason for leaving Sacramento.
He moved to Shasta County to find employment that would allow him to save money. #45, pp.68, 194

Sanderson, Mary
She was a black woman who was the teacher at Oakland’s first public school for black children.
The one-room school opened in 1867 at the corner of Tenth Avenue and East Eleventh Street in the township of Brooklyn (Oakland). #43, p.13

Sanks, Isaac
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He was a black man who gained freedom when his owner died in the mines. #3, p.27

Satchell, Charles (Reverend) (1807?-1872)
He was a black man who came to San Francisco from Cincinnati in 1857.
He was the minister at the Third Baptist Church.
He held a baptism by the bay at Stockton Street in February 1857.
He was formerly a Baptist minister in Louisiana and his expression of antislavery sentiments in his preaching led to suspicion and he left the state for his physical safety.
He made antislavery statements in print in San Francisco. #3, p.161

He operated a clothes cleaning business with William B. Farrell located at 105 Merchant Street in San Francisco.
He came from Richmond, Virginia and settled in Marysville, where he was minister of Mt. Olivet Baptist Church in 1858.
He served a church in Virginia City, Nevada in 1866 and in New Orleans, where he died, in 1869. #27, p.5

Saunders, Jacob
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Saunders, William
He was a black man from Alabama who died on November 30, 1850 at age 22.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.8

Saunders, William O.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Sawyer, Louis
He was a black man from Virginia who died on March 12, 1852 at age 24.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 90. #50, p.8

Scott, Elizabeth (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1859 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Scott, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Woodland. #15, p.103

Scott, Madison
He was a black man from Louisiana who died on September 24, 1853 at age 35.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.8

Scott, Thomas S.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Colusa. #15, p.103

He and Allen Pinkard were witnesses at the wedding of Robert Anthony and Addie Taylor. #15, p.91

Scottall, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Downieville. #15, p.103

Scruggs, Mary Ann
She was a black woman from Louisiana who died on May 31, 1856 at age 74.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Lot 395. #50, p.9

Seals, Daniel
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p. 102

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He was a New York activist before leaving for California. #3, p.39

He left New York on the Empire City for California via Panama.
He traveled with Edward Johnson, another black activist from New York. #3, p.60; #36, p.60

He attended Oberlin College in Ohio with other Colored Convention leaders Frederick Barbadoes, C.M. Wilson and Fielding Smithea. #3, p.191

Segee, Elizabeth
She was a black woman who arrived in San Francisco from Jacksonville, Florida in 1852.
She traveled via the Isthmus of Panama rout with her husband James and young daughter Emma.
Later they moved to Marysville and opened a laundry.
Aunts Mary and Julia Hernandez came from Florida to join them in Marysville in 1853.
When the gold rush struck British Columbia these aunts went there to cook for $100 a week.
Emma was sent to join then and she stayed for seven years being educated at a public school. #15, p.122; #58, p.89

Segee, Emma
She was a young black girl when she arrived in San Francisco from Jacksonville, Florida in 1852.
She accompanied her parents James and Elizabeth as they traveled via the Panama route.
Later she moved to Marysville where her parents opened a laundry.
Relatives Julia and Mary Hernandez came from Florida to join them in Marysville in 1853.
When the gold rush struck British Columbia these relatives went there to cook for $100 a week.
Emma was sent to join them and she stayed for seven years being educated at a public school.
She returned to Marysville, married Mr. Washington and became the town’s first colored public school teacher. #15, p.122; #58, p.89

Segee, James
He was a black man who arrived in San Francisco from Jacksonville, Florida in 1852.
He traveled via the Isthmus of Panama route with his wife Elizabeth and young daughter Emma.
Later they moved to Marysville and opened a laundry.
Aunts Mary and Julia Hernandez came from Florida to join them in Marysville in 1853.
When the gold rush struck British Columbia these aunts went there to cook for $100 a week.
Emma was sent to join them and she stayed for seven years being educated at a public school. #15, p.122; #58, p.89

Segui, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Segui, Ella
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Segui, George
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Serrington, S.B.
This black person came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Serrington, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Folsom. #15, p.103

Seth, William H. (1823- )
He was a porter for George C. Shreve and Company, located at 525 Montgomery Street in San Francisco. Today the site is at Post and Grant Avenue.
He was a member of the Savings Fund and Land Association in 1859.
He purchased land and made small loans to blacks.
He married Eliza Jane Peneton, a member of a family of New Bedford abolitionists.
In the 1870’s he worked as a juror for the U.S. Circuit Court. #27, p.17

Seville, George
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He came to San Francisco from Key West, Florida in 1858.
He originally intended to go to British Columbia but changed his mind in California.
Instead, he went to Grass Valley and began placer mining.
He soon married and had three children named Isabell, Stella and James.
As a widower he entered the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored People in Beulah. #15, p.l06

Seville, Isabell
She was a black woman who was the daughter of miner George Seville of Grass Valley.
Her sister was named Stella and her brother was James. #15, p.106

Seville, James
He was a black man who was the son of miner George Seville of Grass Valley.
His two sisters were Isabell and Stella. #15, p.106

Sharp, Robert
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Rough and Ready. #15, p.105

Shelton, Frank
He was the son of Samuel Shelton, who purchased freedom for him and his mother. #15, p.72

He was a black man who came to California from Orange County, Virginia with his mother in 1847.
His father, Samuel Shelton, came to California in 1840 and followed mining.
Frank was the youngest son and he was educated at first by private teachers.
Reverend J.J. Moore later taught him at his colored school.
He purchased an old warehouse in San Francisco, which was converted into a Baptist Church.
His daughters Lizzie and Julia were educated at Reverend Peter Cassey’s private school in San Jose.
He joined the gold rush in British Columbia and he spent several years there as a miner.
He was very successful at mining and later he returned to San Francisco.
He became a successful dealer in new and second-hand furniture.
When he died he left his family many valuable pieces of property. #15, p.122; #58, p.89

Shelton, Julia
She was the daughter of Frank and the sister of Lizzie Shelton.
She and her sister were educated at Reverend Peter Cassey’s private school in San Jose.
They graduated from the school with honors. #15, p.122

Shelton, Lizzie
She was the daughter of Frank and sister of Julia Shelton.
She and her sister were educated at Reverend Peter Cassey’s private school in San Jose.
They graduated from the school with honors. #15, p.122

Shelton, Lucy
She was a black woman related to Samuel Shelton, who paid for her freedom.
Irishmen kidnapped Moulton Shelton in New York while he was traveling with her.
When she arrived in California she told Samuel Shelton about Moulton’s fate. #15, p.72

Shelton, Moulton
He was a black man who was related to Samuel Shelton, who paid for his freedom.
Irishmen in New York kidnapped him while he was traveling with Lucy Shelton to California.
When Lucy arrived in California she told Samuel Shelton about his fate.
Samuel brought suit to have him released in Washington City, where the sale was recorded.
After several months Moulton was released and made his way safely to San Francisco. #15, p.72

Shelton, Samuel
He was a black man who came to California in 1846. #15, p.102

He came to California in 1840 with his owner, who was also his father.
His mother was a girl stolen in Africa by his father.
In California he earned enough money in the mines to purchase freedom for himself, his wife and their son Frank.
He also purchased freedom for other family members Moulton and Lucy Shelton and Moses Brown.
Moulton was kidnapped by Irishmen in New York and sold into slavery.
When Lucy arrived in San Francisco she told Samuel and he brought a lawsuit to free Moulton.
The sale was recorded in Washington, D.C. and Moulton was freed after several months and he came to California to join other family members.
He spent thousands of dollars in purchasing freedom for himself and his immediate family and their families and bringing them to live in California.

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Fearful of a collapse, he removed his money from the banking firm of Page and Bacon.
He put his gold in a champagne basket and carried it home in a wheelbarrow. #15, p.45

He purchased his freedom and that of his family members.
Family member Moulton Shelton was freed in Washington City, but he was captured and returned to slavery.
Samuel Shelton filed a lawsuit in San Francisco for his release.
Moulton was freed and migrated to California. #1

Shipman, John
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Simmons, Virginia (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Simms, Gabriel W.
He was born in Virginia.
He ran the Franklin Hotel on First Street in Marysville.
It was a small hotel near a cluster of other black businesses. #3, p.112

He was a black man on the board of trustees for the Rare, Ripe Gold and Silver Mining Company.
The mine was located in Brown’s Valley in Yuba County and the offices were in Marysville.
Although the trustees were all 49ers, the company was not organized until 1868.
The board of trustees was John H. Gassoway as president, E.P.Duplex as secretary and treasurer, G.W. Simms and J.H. Johnson.
1,200 shares represented the capitol stock and 300 shares were offered for sale at $10 each. #15, p.105

He was one of the black owners of the Sweet Vengeance Mine in Brown’s Valley.
The owners included Fritz Vosburg, Abraham Holland and others. #36, p.68

He was one of the black owners of the Sweet Vengeance Mine in Brown’s Valley.
Other company members who worked the claim were Fritz James Vosburg, Abraham Freeman Holland, Edward Duplex, James Cousins and M. McGowan. #15, p.104

Simpson, Daniel
He was a black man from New England who worked as a washerman in Sacramento.
He presided over a meeting of Sacramento blacks to discuss the issue of testimony rights for blacks. #3, p.196

Sinclair, Joseph
He was a black man from New York City who died on January 19, 1853 at age 50.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 7, Lot 396. #50, p.8

Skillman, William
He was a black man from Massachusetts who died on January 23, 1857 at age 45.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 14. #50, p.9

Slaughter, Jessie
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Small, Robert
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Smallwood, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Santa Cruz. #15, p.103

He was a black barber of Georgetown, California, who was the only black subscriber to the New York National Anti-Slavery Standard, which was a large antislavery newspaper in the East. #3, p.190

Smallwood, Jeremiah
He was a black man from Washington, D.C. who died on April 26, 1857 at age 35.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 27, Lot 2. #50, p.9

Smith, (Mr.)
He was a black miner in Amador County who worked a claim hydraulically. He paid 25 cents per inch for water and made five or six dollars a day. #3,p.55

Smith, A.B.
He signed the 1862 petition in San Francisco for better education for black children. The signers included J.B. Sanderson, Barney Fletcher, H.F. Sampson, Isaac Reed, John Kinney, Charles Smith, P. Anderson, J. Madison Bell, Samuel E. Burris, A.B. Smith and R.T. Houston. #3, p.176

Smith, Adam (Reverend)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Smith, Charles
He signed an 1862 petition in San Francisco for better education for black children.
Signers included J.B. Sanderson, Barney Fletcher, H.F. Sampson, Isaac Reed, John Kinney, Charles Smith, P. Anderson, J. Madison Bell, Samuel E. Burris, A.B. Smith and R.T. Houston. #3, p.176

On September 2, 1856 the financial committee for Mirror of the Times was established.
It included Nathan Pointer, W.D. Moses, Charles Mitchison, Reverend Barney Fletcher, Charles B. Smith, F. Spotts and Henry F. Sampson. #3, p.220

Smith, Cooper
He worked in the mines for two years after coming to California to pay for his freedom. #15, p.71

Smith, Ellen
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Smith, Emaline
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Watsonville. #15, p.103

Smith, G.A.
Members of the 4th Colored Convention held in October 1865 included “Peter” Bell and Andrew Bristol of San Francisco, James Floyd, A.J. White, G.A. Smith, S.J. Marshal, Peter Cassey and Mrs. William A. Smith, all of San Jose. #15, p.63

Smith, George
He was a free back man from Maryland who mined with fellow black George Ringgold among Mexicans. #3, p.64

Smith, George C.
He was a black man born in New York who served on U.S. warships during the Mexican War.
With fellow black George Diggs, he served on the ship Columbus under Commodore Biddle and Captain Selfridge.
He was one of five black members of the Society of Mexican Veterans.
The others were Peter Byers, George Diggs, Lewis G. Green and Paul Rushmore. #15, p.102

He was a cook and barber before becoming a miner. #45, p.61

Smith, Grant (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Smith, Harriett (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of San Jose. #15, p.103

Among the members of the 4th Colored Convention held in October 1865 were “Peter” Bell and Andre3w Bristol of San Francisco, James Floyd, A.J. White, G.A. Smith, S.J. Marshal, Peter Cassey and Mrs. William A. Smith (Harriett), all of San Jose. #15, p.63


18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
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