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AfriGeneas Western Frontier Forum

Post #7 - CAAP
In Response To: Post #6 - CAAP ()

California’s African American Pioneers
Developed and Submitted by Guy Washington
National Park Service
1111 Jackson Street, Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607
510-817-1390
January 3, 2005

Mortimer, J. C. – Rice, Aaron

Mortimer, J.C.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.103

Morton, Stafford P.
He was a black man from Washington, D.C. who died on March 26, 1857 at age 26.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Lot 538. #50, p.7

“Mose”
He was an elderly black man from Kentucky who was formerly a slave and a jockey.
He worked as a bootblack in Sacramento. #3, p.109

Moses, Wellington Delaney
On August 2, 1956 he was a member of the financial committee established for Mirror of the Times.
Other members were Nathan Pointer, Charles Mitchison, Reverend Barney Fletcher, Charles B. Smith, F. Spotts, and Henry F. Sampson. #3, p.220

He was one of the Pioneer Committee of blacks who left San Francisco for British Columbia.
A group of 35 left on April 20, 1858 and traveled to Canada on the steamship Commodore.
Along with Mercier and Richard, Moses was appointed as a delegation to interview Governor Douglas.
A letter in which he describes his new life favorably was read in a San Francisco Zion Church meeting. #58, pp.64-65

On July 29, 1858 he opened a barber shop, the Pioneer Shaving and Saloon and Bath Room on Yates Street.
He remained in Victoria until 1862, when he moved to Cariboo.
By the mid-1860’s Moses’ “Hair Invigorator” became a well-known product in the colony. #58, p.75

Moses, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Moulton, W.W.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Mull, Isaac
He was a black man who came to California in 1852 and became a pioneer of Petaluma. #15, p.103

Murray, Francis
He was a black man from Georgia who died on June 27, 1861 at age 24.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Lot 246. #50, p.7

Murray, Sarah
She was a black woman from Georgia who died on December 17, 1855 at age 44.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Lot 246. #50, p.7

Neal, Charles
He was a black man who married former slave Susan Neal, who was left indebted at his death.
He was a member of the United Sons of Friendship. #17, p.64

Neal, Susan
She was a slave brought to California from Alabama by her owners.
She gained freedom by coming to California, where she married Charles Neal.
Upon his death she was left in debt. #17, p.64

“Negro Bob”
He was a black man brought to California from Missouri by owner Taylor Barton.
He was given freedom on December 25, 1851 in the Cold Springs Precinct of Eldorado County.
#15, p.84

Bob’s freedom papers are addressed from Taylor Barton to Negro Bob.
“Know all men to whom these presents shall come: I, Taylor Barton, lately a citizen of the State of Missouri, and owner of slaves, do here by this instrument, under my hand and seal, given this ninth day of October, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and fifty-one, set Free from Bondage to me and all men, my slave Bob, and do declare him forever hereafter his own man, wherever he may go. Nevertheless, I make this condition, that said Bob shall remain with me as my slave, faithful and obedient to me, until the twenty-fifth day of December next, commonly known as Christmas.

Witness my hand and seal on the day and date aforesaid. Taylor Barton. #46, p.62

“Negro Josh”
Josh’s story was described by Mrs. Louisa Amelia Knapp Smith Clapp (Dame Shirley) in a letter to her sister on August 4, 1852.
“We have lived through so much excitement for the last three weeks, dear M., that I almost shrink from relating the gloomy events which have marked their flight.
On Tuesday following the Sabbath, a man brought the news of the murder of a Mr. Bacon, a person well known on the river, who kept a ranch about twelve miles from Rich Bar. He was killed for his money by his servant, a negro, who not three months ago was our own cook. He was the last anybody would have suspected capable of such an act.
A party of men, appointed by the Vigilance Committee, left the Bar immediately in search of him. The miserable wretch was apprehended in Sacramento and part of the gold found on his person. On the following Sunday he was brought in chains to Rich Bar. After a trial by the miners, he was sentenced to be hung at four o’clock in the evening. All efforts to make him confess proved futile. He said, very truly, that whether innocent or guilty, they would hang him; so he died ‘and made no sign,’ with a calm indifference.” #46, p.75

Neil, Lydia
She was a black woman from Virginia who died on October 7, 1861.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 16, Lot 31. #50, p.8

Neimore, J.J.
He was a black man who escaped enslavement in Missouri.
He founded and published the black newspaper, The California Eagle. #46, p.142

“Nelson”
He was a black porter at the banking firm of Drexel, Sather, and Church in San Francisco.
In 1854 his wife and child arrived from the East.
He was given a gift of $100 and lent another $200 by his employer Sather. #3, p.107

Nelson, Charles
He was a black man from Tennessee who died on July 4, 1858.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 28, Lot 33. #50, p.8

Nelson, Louden (May 5, 1800-May 17, 1860)
He was an ex-slave from North Carolina who came to the gold fields of California with his owner.
He died an old man in Santa Cruz in 1860.
He willed his property to the Santa Cruz school district.
His tombstone, which incorrectly reads “native of Tennessee”, stands as a reminder of his contribution to education. #3, p.185

Nelson, Nathaniel
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He came to California with his owner, William Russell, from Cook County, Tennessee.
He worked in the mines and after four years paid for freedom for himself and his family.
Later he saved enough to bring his wife and several children to California.
In 1854 they located in Marysville. #15, p.71

Newby, William H.
He was born in Virginia to a free black woman in 1828.
He grew up in Philadelphia where he attended a Negro school.
In 1851 he came to California, but he left for a position as a secretary in Haiti in 1857.
In 1858 he returned to San Francisco where he died and was given Masonic honors.
He was buried at Lone Mountain Cemetery, which is the present site of the San Francisco College for Women. #3, p.223

He had an eastern antislavery background and he was devoted to the struggles of free and enslaved blacks.
He served as the first corresponding secretary of the San Francisco Atheneum Institute. #3, p.100

He was a regular correspondent for Frederick Douglass’Paper. #3, p.224

On September 27, 1855 he was part of a committee that signed a call for a Colored Convention.
The group included James Carter of Sacramento, J.H. Townsend, Peter Anderson, William H. Newby, D.W. Ruggles and J.B. Sanderson, all of San Francisco. #15, p.55

He was a leader in a petition campaign in San Francisco for the right of testimony for blacks.
Other leaders were Mifflin Gibbs and Jonas Townsend.
The petition was submitted March 10, 1852. #3, p.194

He signed a petition calling for a Colored Convention to be held in Sacramento on November 20, 1855.
Others who signed the petition were Peter Anderson, J.H. Townsend, David Ruggles and James Carter of Sacramento. #3, p.212

He was elected to the publishing committee for Mirror of the Times on August 19, 1856.
He served as co-editor.
Other signers were J.H. Townsend, H.M. Collins, Reverend Moore, and Nathan Pointer.
The newspaper was a result of the initiative of Newby and Townsend. #3, p.219

Before coming to California he had been a daguerreotypist in New York City.
He died in San Francisco in 1858. #27, p.4

He was a delegate from San Francisco at the 2nd Colored Convention in 1856.
He was editor of Mirror of the Times. #46, p.84

Newton, Robert
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

“Norris”
He was a black sailor who was part of Bouchard’s force in 1818 when he was captured in California.
He became a cook at San Juan Capistrano. #15, p.100

He came to California with the Bouchard party in 1818.
The group was ordered out of Monterey by Governor Pablo Vicente de Sola and Norris became a cook for a short time at San Juan Capistrano before settling in Santa Clara.
He may have also been known as Fisher. #58, pp.41-42

Norris, Anderson
He was a black seaman who deserted the ship Cyan in 1843 and was killed by the Californians.
#15, pp.100-101.

In 1843 he deserted his job a cook on the warship Cyane while at Sausalito.
He joined a group of white hunters in the Calistoga area, where he was pursued as a runaway sailor.
Salvador Vallejo, who was the brother of Mariano, killed him.
Mountain man Ezekiel Merritt witnessed the killing. #3, p.5

Norris, Philip
He was a black man from Alabama who died on May 5, 1858 at age 52.
He was buried at the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.8

“Old Man Sours”
He was a black man who was held in slavery on a ranch near Napa.
Other enslaved blacks on the ranch were Aaron Rice, Wash Strains and Old Man Sydes.
John Grider of the Bear Flag Party provided these names to Delilah Beasley.
The men were the property of a slaveholder from Walnut Creek.
Reverend Thomas Starr King learned of their situation, went to the ranch and liberated them. #15, p.91

“Old Man Sydes”
He was a black man who was held in slavery on a ranch near Napa.
Other enslaved blacks on the ranch were Aaron Rice, Old Man Sours and Wash Strains.
John Grider of the Bear Flag Party provided these names to Delilah Beasley.
The men were the property of a slaveholder from Walnut Creek.
Reverend Thomas Starr King learned of their situation, went to the ranch and liberated them. #15, p.91

Oliver, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Colusa. #15, p.103

“Oscar”
He was a black man who mined in a small ravine near Mariposa, California.
He worked with another black man named Perkins.
They struck a vein of decomposed slate containing gold.
In two days they took out $1,300 worth of gold. #3, p.55

Ousley, Green
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Ousley, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Ousley, Jordon
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

“Outley”
He was a delegate at the Third Colored Convention. #3, p.234

Overton, Jacob
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of San Jose. #15, p.103

Overton, Sarah Massey
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of San Jose. #15, p.103

Owens, Charles P.
He was the son of Robert and Winnie Owens and he came to California from Texas in December 1853 with his parents and his two sisters, who were named Sara Jane and Martha.
On October 16, 1856 he married Ellen Mason, eldest daughter of Biddy Mason, in Los Angeles.
Their sons were named Henry L. and Robert C. Owens.
When his father died in 1865 he took over the livery business on San Pedro Street in Los Angeles.
He opened another livery business on Main Street, near First.
He purchased twelve lots on Olive Street, between Third and Fourth streets.
When he died on September 22, 1882, his sons took over the livery business. #15, pp.101, 109-110

Owens, Henry L.
He was a black man who was the son of Charles P. Owens and Ellen Mason.
Their mother took Henry and his brother Robert C. to Oakland for education.
They were then sent to Stockton, where J.B. Sanderson, with whom they lived, taught them.
They returned to Los Angeles and completed business college at night.
When their father died, he and his brother took over the family livery business.
After the death of their grandmother Biddy Mason, the brothers opened another livery business.
It was located in Los Angeles on Spring Street, between Third and Fourth Streets.
He married Miss Louise Kruger on December 3, 1884 in Denver, Colorado.
He died on August 5, 1893. #15, pp.109-110

Owens, Martha
She was the daughter of Robert and Winnie Owens.
She came to Los Angeles in December 1853 from Texas with her parents, her brother Charles and her sister Sara Jane. #15, p.110

Owens, Robert (“Uncle Bob”)
He was a black man from Texas who purchased his freedom.
He saved his money and purchased freedom for his wife, son and two daughters.
The family moved to Los Angeles in 1853.
They were known there as Uncle Bob and Aunt Minnie.
They were awarded a government contract to cut wood for local military units.
The site of their woodcutting operation was known as “Negro Canyon.”
By 1860 Owens had a cattle business worth $6,500.
By century’s end two Owens grandsons owned the Owens Block in Los Angeles.
The site is located on Broadway near Third Street. #3, p.119

He came to California from Texas in December 1853 with his wife Winnie, his two daughters and his son
The children’s names were Sara Jane, Martha and Charles.
He bought lots in Los Angeles on San Pedro Street, where he opened a livery stable.
He was a shrewd man of business who was energetic and honorable in his dealings.
When he died his son Charles took over the livery business.
He made money by government contracts and general trade.
He died on August 18, 1865 at the age of 59. #15, pp.101-102, 110

He rescued Biddy Mason and others from slaveholder Robert Smith in Santa Monica Canyon.
They were brought to court in Los Angeles under a writ of habeas corpus and freed by a local judge. #55, p.20

Owens, Robert C.
He was a black man who was the eldest son of Charles P. Owens and Ellen Mason.
Their mother took he and his brother Henry L. to Oakland for education.
They were then sent to Stockton, where J.B. Sanderson, with whom they lived, taught them.
The brothers returned to Los Angeles and completed business college at night.
After his father died, he and his brother took over the family livery business.
After the death of their grandmother Biddy Mason, the brothers opened another livery business.
It was located in Los Angeles on Spring Street, between Third and Fourth streets. #15, pp.109-110

Owens, Sara Jane
She was the daughter of Robert and Winnie Owens.
She came to Los Angeles from Texas in December 1853 with her parents, her brother Charles and her sister Martha. #15, p.110

Owens, Winnie (“Aunt Winnie”)
She was a black woman who was married to Robert Owens.
They came to California from Texas in December 1853 with their two daughters, Sara Jane and Martha, and son Charles. #15, p.101

“Paginini” Ned
He was a mulatto cook. #36, XV

It is possible that he his nickname came from Italian violinist Niccolo Paginini (1782-1840). #36, p.185

He was known as Paginini of the Humboldt (saloon/bar).
He was a cook onboard the U.S.S. Somers during the naval blockade of Mexican ports during the Mexican War. #36, p.52

He prepared the welcome dinner for Dame Shirley at Indian Bar. #36, p.53

He was a light-skinned mulatto with frizzled hair that corkscrewed.
He played the violin beautifully and he was accompanied by white violinist “Chock.” #36, p.54

He was wrongly accused and nearly hanged for an alleged razor attack on a crazed man. #36, p.140

Later in 1852 he moved to Marysville. #36, p.91

Pallier, William
He was a black man who came to California with his wife in 1849. #15, p.102

Pallier, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California with her husband in 1849. #15, p.102

Parker, Charles W.
He was the proprietor of the Hackett House in Sacramento, who secured Archy Lee’s release on a writ of habeas corpus.
Lee had been housed in the city’s jail following his escape from Charles Stovall. #58, p.54

Parker, Edward W.
He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention selected in 1865.
The committee included F.G. Barbadoes as president, Solomon Peneton as vice-president, Henry Hall as corresponding secretary, James R. Starkey as treasurer, Shadrack Howard as recording secretary, William Yates, Henry Collins, William H. Hall, James P. Dyer, J. Madison Bell, Edward W. Parker, David W. Ruggles and John F. Meshaw. #15, p.63

Parker, Sarah (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Red Bluff. #15, p.103

Parker, William
He and his wife were among a number of blacks held in slavery in San Jose.
They were liberated through the efforts of Reverend Cassey, Mrs. Harriett Davis and Mrs. White. #15, p.92

Pearl, John
He was a black man who died on November 1, 1850 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.8

Pease, Williamson
He was an enslaved black man who came to California from Arkansas.
He tried to convince his owner to allow him to remain in California and purchase his freedom through mining.
The owner tricked him onto a ship headed for New Orleans.
He escaped in New Orleans and headed for Canada. #3, p.71

He was born into enslavement in Hardeman County, Tennessee with the name Williamson.
He was a house servant whose father was a white man and whose mother was a mulatto.
Williamson claimed that he passed for white when he was among strangers.
He moved with his mother and two sisters to Haywood County, Tennessee. #56, p.123

Pease moved with his owner to Arkansas, where they lived fifteen miles from the Sabine River.
They joined a mining company and went to California on the Panama route in 1850.
Pease and his owner worked in the southern mines on the Merced River for six weeks.
They left their mining company after digging only $80 worth of gold and returned to San Francisco.
The owner decided to return home to Arkansas due to poor health.
Pease wanted to stay in California where he could work and earn enough to buy his freedom. #56, p.12
He was persuaded to accompany his owner on the trip home by the promise that he would be given papers to prove he was a free man, with no claim on him at all.
In addition, his mother was to be purchased and also granted her freedom.
Pease worked to pay for his passage on a sailing ship, which landed at Acapulco, Mexico.
The two men crossed the Isthmus and sailed on a Spanish schooner from Vera Cruz to New Orleans.
When they arrived, Pease was sold to the owner’s new father-in-law and then sold again. #56, p.125

He stayed on a plantation in Arkansas from March 1852 until January 1, 1854 when he escaped.
Pease walked forty miles through the Arkansas Swamp to the Mississippi River town of Napoleon.
Following his escape at age 21, he settled in Hamilton, Canada. #56, p.129

Peneton, Eliza Jane
Married to William H. Seth, she was a member of a black abolitionist family from New Bedford. #27, p.17

Peneton, Solomon
He was an important abolitionist leader of the New Bedford and San Francisco black communities.
His daughter was married to Horace N. Bentley. #27, p.1

He served on a special committee selected by the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention.
The Executive Committee met in San Francisco during 1863 after passage of the Testimony Bill.
Solomon Peneton recommended the appointment of this committee at a Scott Street church meeting.
C. Wilson moved that a committee of three would be sufficient.
Elected were T.M.D. Ward as president, Peter Anderson as secretary, Alex Ferguson, J.B. Sanderson, F.G. Barbadoes, Shadrack Howard and William Yates. #15, p.60

He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention selected in 1865.
The committee included F.G. Barbadoes as president, Solomon Peneton as vice-president, Henry Hall as corresponding secretary, James R. Starkey as treasurer, Shadrack Howard as recording secretary, William Yates, Henry Collins, William H. Hall, James P. Dyer, J. Madison Bell, Edward W. Parker, David W. Ruggles and John F. Meshaw. #15, p.63

Penney, (Mrs.)
She came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Penny, James
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

“Perkins”
He mined in a small ravine near Mariposa, California, where he worked with fellow black man Oscar.
They struck a vein of decomposed slate containing gold and in two days took out the sum of $1,300. #3, p.55

Perkins, Jack
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Placerville. #15, p.103

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Peters, Annie (nee Garrick)
She was a black pioneer who came to San Francisco with Reverend Flavel Scott Mines.
She came from St. Croix in the Danish West Indies, where William Leidesdorff was born.
She knew his mother and knew of his mixed racial background.
She was educated in a private school on St. Croix.
She was fourteen years old when she arrived in New York. #15, pp.107, 121

Peters, John
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Mariposa. #15, p.103

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Phillips, James Richard (1836-1902)
A native of New York, he was the grandson of Payton Harris, a black New York civil rights leader.
In 1854 he arrived in San Francisco where he was one of the owners of Phillips and Company.
The public bathhouse was located at 406 Pine Street and Fritz James Vosburg was the manager.
He was co-founder of the Brannan Guard and he lived at 400½ Geary Street in San Francisco.
In 1876 he exhibited the products of the California Cocoanut Pulverizing Company at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. #27, p.15

He was a black man from Virginia who arrived in San Francisco in the 1850s.
He was an entrepreneur who bought and sold a variety of goods. #45, p.28

In 1866 he was elected 1st Lieutenant of the newly formed Brannan Guards.
Other officers selected by the 45 members were A.B. Dennison, Captain, William H. Alexander, 2nd Lieutenant and A. Jackson, Orderly Sergeant. #58, p.24

The Guards drilled Wednesdays at their armory at 925 Pacific Street in San Francisco.
In 1870 the unit marched in the parade celebrating the ratification of the 15th Amendment. #58, p.25

In 1869 he was elected captain in the newly formed Lincoln Zouaves militia unit. #58, p.25

Phipps, Mathew A.
He and Alexander G. Dennison were the organizers of the Brannan Guard in San Francisco.
Sam Brannan outfitted this black militia unit. #27, p.1

He operated one of two bootblack stands located at 348 Bush Street in San Francisco.
He was President of the West Indian Benevolent Society.
He relocated to Victoria, British Columbia.
In 1871 he was appointed District Deputy Grand Master of the Black Masonic Lodge in Victoria. #27, p.15; #58, p.72

Pickett, Angeline (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Pickett, Isaac
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Pierre, Thomas W.
He and fellow black man William Brown were co-owners of a clothing emporium in San Francisco.
The business was located on Merchant Street, under the Union Hotel. #27, p.7

The firm was known as the Brown and Pierre Clothing Emporium.
He was born in Washington, D.C. in 1831.
In 1861 he worked as a tailor at 530 California Street in San Francisco.
He joined the California colony in British Columbia in the late 1860s.
His descendents were tailors at Victoria and Tacoma and the family might still be in these places.
He was a member of Victoria Lodge No.3 Freemasons. #27, p.14

After relocating from San Francisco, he became one of Victoria’s pioneer tailors.
His daughter Mary Cecilia married Charles Spotts, son of Fielding and Julia Spotts. #58, p88

Pierson (Captain)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Pierson, Isaac (1830?-1875)
A native of Baltimore, this black man owned an express wagon in San Francisco.
His business was located on the northwest corner of Clay and Montgomery Streets. #27, p.9

Pincard, A.
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Colusa. #15, p.103

He and Thomas Scott were witnesses at the wedding of Robert Anthony and Addie Taylor. #15, p.91

Pindell, Anne
She was a black woman who lived in San Francisco and was a music teacher.
She gave concert performances and did fancy needlework to supplement her income. #45, p.192

Piper, (Mr.)
He was a black man who married Ellen Clark in Petaluma. #15, p.102

Pleasant, Mary Ellen
She was a black woman who was involved in various business ventures.
She was one of the financial backers of the Atheneum Saloon. #3, p.100

She ran a boardinghouse in San Francisco at 920 Washington Street.
She employed David Cloyd, Shirley Green, and John T. Valentine as domestic servants at the house.
Her 1870 boarders included: William B. Hughs (U.S. Quartermaster), Newton Booth (future governor of California), Charles Marshall (clerk in U.S. Revenue Office), Thomas Wright (wealthy master mariner) and George Wright (wealthy businessman).
She used her influence with these men to champion black causes. #27, p.2

In 1864 she attempted to ride a streetcar in San Francisco after attending church.
Louise Tyler, Mrs. Bivens and Laura Clark accompanied her.
Being light-skinned Tyler was allowed in the car, but the others were refused admittance.
Mary sought counsel and her next attempt to ride was witnessed by an attorney and other whites.
After this refusal, she entered a suit against the streetcar company and won damages. #15, p.65

Pogue, Peter
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Pointer, Charles
He was the son of William and Julia Ann Pointer.
His brothers were John and Nathaniel, and his sisters were Mary and Ellen.
They came from the east to join Mary in California in 1866. #15, p.122

Pointer, Ellen
She was the daughter of William and Julia Ann Pointer.
Her brothers were John, Nathaniel and Charles, and her sister was Mary.
They came from the east to join Mary in California in 1866. #15, p.122

Pointer, John
He was the son of William and Julia Ann Pointer.
His brothers were Nathaniel and Charles, and his sisters were Mary and Ellen.
They came from the east to join Mary in California in 1866. #15, p.122

Pointer, Julia Ann
She was the wife of William Pointer.
Her sons were John, Nathaniel and Charles, and her daughters were Ellen and Mary.
They came from the east to join Mary in California in 1866. #15, p.122

Pointer, Mary (Miss)
She was a relative of Nathaniel Pointer who came to California in 1863.
After living in San Francisco for three years, she sent back east for her family, including her parents.
Her parents were William and Julia Ann, her brothers were John, Nathaniel and Charles and her sister was Ellen.
She married John Callander and they opened a boardinghouse for sailors in May 1866.
The house was located in San Francisco at No. 5 Broadway Street. #15, p.122

Pointer, Nathan (Nathaniel?)
He was a black man who was elected to the publishing committee for Mirror of the Times on August 19, 1856.
Others elected included J.H. Townsend, H.M. Collins, William Newby and Reverend Moore. #3, p.219

On September 2, 1856 the financial committee for Mirror of the Times was established.
It included W.D. Moses, Nathan Pointer, Charles Mitchison, Reverend Barney Fletcher, Charles B.Smith, F. Spotts and Henry F. Sampson. #3, p.220

He became a member of Victoria’s black community, working as a merchant.
In 1859 he visited Peter Anderson in San Francisco.
He purchased a large quantity of goods to take back to British Columbia. #3, p.249

He came to San Francisco in 1852 and went into business with Mifflin Gibbs.
They opened the Philadelphia Store.
Later he brought his relatives, including his mother, grandmother, two uncles, two aunts and four cousins, to California from Mississippi via Panama. #15, p.122

Pointer, Nathaniel
He was the son of Nathaniel and Julia Ann Pointer.
His brothers were John and Charles, and his sisters were Mary and Ellen.
They came from the east to join Mary in California in 1866. #15, p.122

Pointer, William
He was a black man who was the husband of Julia Ann.
His sons were John, Nathaniel and Charles, and his daughters were Mary and Ellen.
He came from the east to California with his family in 1866. #15, p.122

Pollock, William
He was a black man who came to California with his wife and owner from North Carolina.
They settled in Cold Springs in Coloma County.
He paid the owner $1,000 for his freedom and $800 for the freedom of his wife.
He earned money by washing clothes for miners at night and by his wife making and selling donuts.
After obtaining freedom papers the couple moved to Placerville.
They earned their living from cooking for parties and weddings. #15, p.71

Pettorous, Charles
He was a black man from New York who was a steerage passenger on board the steamer Central America when she was lost in a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina on September 12, 1857. #48, pp.242, 252

He had accumulated $4,000 in savings from his work as a storekeeper in San Francisco.
He married Susan Pettorous in San Francisco.
In 1843 he had married Margaret Davidson, who after his death tried to claim his estate.
His nurse wife, Susan, was employed by and accompanied Mrs. Lucy Thayer on the Central America. #48, pp. 48, 242

Pettorous, Susan
She was a black nurse who was employed by Mrs. Lucy Thayer on board the steamer Central America when she was lost in a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina on September 12, 1857. #48, p. 48

She was accompanied on the voyage by her husband Charles, who was a successful storekeeper in San Francisco. #48, p252

She was rescued by the brig Marine. #48, p.91

She went to New York City and filed for letters of administration for her husband’s estate, valued at $4,000.
Susan and Charles had been married in San Francisco.
Disposition of the estate, also claimed by former wife Margaret Davidson, is unknown. #48, p242

Pierson (Captain)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Potts, Barbara
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Powers, Peter
He was a black man who came to California in 1851 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.103

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He was born enslaved in Missouri in 1828.
After his mother died his mistress raised him.
When his owners died he was given his freedom in 1857 but he was obligated to leave the state.
He married Rachel Seals, daughter of Frank Seals of Kentucky.
They left Warsaw during April 1858 to cross the plains.
Indians attacked their party at Gravelford on the Humboldt River.
In California he mined, ran a boardinghouse and operated a laundry for three years.
He then moved to Grass Valley, where he lived for one year.
He moved to Marysville , accumulated property and learned to read and write.
He later became a teacher in the public school there for a number of years.
In 1865 he and his family move to Tehema County, where he bought land.
In 1866 his wife died.
In 1870 he went to Chico and bought two lots from black residents and built an AME church.
He was elected to represent the county at a school convention. #15, pp.122-123

He was a member of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1859. #1

Powers, Rachel (nee Seals)
She was the daughter of Frank Seals of Kentucky.
She married Peter Powers of Missouri and they left Warsaw in April 1858 to cross the plains.
Indians attacked their party at Gravelford on the Humboldt River.
They lived in Grass Valley for one year before moving to Marysville.
In 1865 they moved to Tehema County and she died in 1866.#15, p.123

Price, James
He was a black man from New York who died on March 29, 1854 at age 38.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 507. #50, p.8

Price, Robert
He was a black man from Missouri who died on October 23, 1854 at age 40.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 357. #50, p.8

Price, William
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

“Pricilla”
She was a mulatto woman who resided at Grass Valley, where she worked as a prostitute.
A black man was killed by a white man over her favors. #3, p.82

Primus, Nelson A. (1843?-1916)
He was a distinguished 19th century artist born in Hartford, Connecticut.
He was the son of Holderidge Primus (1815-1884).
He arrived in San Francisco in 1849 with the Hartford Mining Association and he remained four years.
He won a gold medal for drawing in 1859 at the State Agricultural Society Fair.
He moved to Boston in 1864.
In 1900 he resided at 1006 Washington Street in San Francisco.
In 1901 he resided at 535 California Street in San Francisco. #27, p.1

Quintero, Luis
He was one of the black Spaniards who founded the pueblo of Los Angeles on September 4, 1781. #58, p.40

Quivers, Emanuel
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He was hired out to Tredegar Iron Company in Richmond, Virginia.
He persuaded its owner to buy him and he labored for four years and purchased freedom for himself, his wife and four children.
He later settled in gold rush California and became a foreman in a Stockton factory. #40, p.62

He was enslaved as a skilled ironworker in Virginia until 1849.
He worked at Tredegar Iron Works for his owner.
He freed himself and his family by purchase from his savings.

The 1852 California census listed false information on Quivers’ background.
His fear of the National Fugitive Slave Law caused him to report himself born in England.
He claimed Manuel Quivas as his name.
The Quivers family became prominent black leaders in Stockton and they used the original name during and after the Civil War. #3, p.202

In 1857 Quivas (from Merced) circulated a petition for the legal right of testimony for blacks.
His involvement showed victory over his fear of a return to slavery, a common fear among ex-slaves. #3, p.202

Quivers, Sarah
She married mining engineer Moses Rodgers in the 1860s and they had five daughters. #44, p.590

Ramires, Ignacio
He was a mulatto slave from the vessel San Antonio.
He died in 1770 and was buried in the cemetery at Monterey.
At the time of his death, he was preparing to buy his freedom. #58, p.40

Randall, Annie
She was an enslaved black girl who was working on Mr. Durham’s ranch near Stockton.
On June 3, 1872 J.B. Sanderson went with Sheriff T. Cunningham to the ranch where she was held.
They transported Randall to court and Judge Bonder released her to Sanderson. #15, p.92

Randolph, Thomas Edward (Reverend)
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He fled slavery in Virginia in December 1848 and in 1849 he settled in New Bedford.
He arrived in California in 1851 via Cape Horn.

He settled in Marysville and became Baptist minister at Mt. Olivet Church.
He also worked as a barber.
He was listed in the 1858 city directory as having been born in Ohio, but the 1860 directory listed Virginia as the true place of birth.
By then he felt secure concerning his free status in California.
Three others in Marysville also gave slave state origins in 1860. #3, p.19

He concealed his slave-state birth due to insecurity concerning the national and state Fugitive Slave Laws. In the 1858 city directory of Marysville he is listed as having been born in Ohio.
By 1860 he listed Virginia as his state of birth. #3, p.113

He arrived in Marysville from San Francisco in 1857. #3, p.165

Raney, Peter (“Black Peter”)
He was a black man who came to California in 1826 with Jedediah Smith. Indians later killed him in the mountains. #3, p.6

His last name was also spelled as Ranne, and he came to California with the Jedediah Smith exploration party in the 1820’s. #58, p.42

Rapier, Dick
He was a black man who came overland to California with C.C. Churchill from Kentucky.
He herded mules with Madison Moorman in the rear of their wagon train. #3, p.29

Reed, Isaac
In 1862 he signed a petition for better education for black children.
The signers included J.B. Sanderson, Barney Fletcher, H.F. Sampson, Isaac Reed, John Kinney, Charles Smith, P. Anderson, J. Madison Bell, Samuel E. Burris, A.B. Smith and R.T. Houston. #3, p.176

Reno, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Woodland. #15, p.103

“Rheubin”
He was a family slave from Kentucky who came to California with owner George Murrell.
He mined on the North Fork of the American River and he remained in the area for over a year.
He sent home letters to his family dictated to Murrell. #3, p.68

Rice, Aaron
He was a black man who was held in slavery on a ranch near Napa.
Other enslaved blacks on the ranch were Old Man Sours, Wash Strains and Old Man Sydes.
John Grider of the Bear Flag Party provided these names to Delilah Beasley.
The men were the property of a slaveholder from Walnut Creek.
Reverend Thomas Starr King learned of their situation, went to the ranch and liberated the men. #15, p.91


18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
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