Join the Genealogy Revolution.
Search for your surname in the largest DNA database of its kind!

My Surname


Footnote.com

Banner - Family Tree Maker 2008

Domain Name Registration at GoDaddy.com 120x60


AfriGeneas Western Frontier Forum

Post #6 - CAAP
In Response To: Post #5 - CAAP ()

California’s African American Pioneers
Developed and Submitted by Guy Washington
National Park Service
1111 Jackson Street, Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607
510-817-1390
January 3, 2005

Lee, Archy – Morrison, William H.

Lee, Archy
He was a slave who became the focus of several court cases and a civil rights movement in 1858. #2, p.4

Lee’s case of 1858 showed the degree to which the freedom of black Californians was subject to abuse.
Lee migrated to California from Mississippi with his owner Charles Stovall.
By January of 1858 he was hiding in the Hackett House, a Sacramento resort owned by a black man.
Lee had previously mingled with the free black community where he was urged to flee from Stovall.
The police arrested him as a fugitive. #2, p.5

In 1858 he migrated to Victoria, British Columbia where he was a successful drayman and property owner. #2, p.247

Lee, Barney M
He was a 27-year-old black man from Pennsylvania traveling as a steerage passenger on board the steamer Central America when she was lost in a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina on September 12, 1857.
He was rescued by the bark Ellen. #48, p.251

Barney, aged 28 at the time of the accident, was born in Washington, D.C. and he lived in Pitt Township, Allegheny County, PA with his mother, uncle and other family members.
In 1852 this mulatto man began mining and by 1856, he and his uncle, Daniel Mahoney, were in Nevada City, Nevada County, CA.
He was traveling east with his uncle, Daniel Mahoney, who operated a saloon in Nevada City.
Lee had recently been proprietor of a hair dressing salon. #48, p.66

He watched the loading of the life-boats and tried unsuccessfully to get his uncle into one of the boats. #48, p.97

He observed the chaos aboard the steamer as women boarded boats for the brig Marine. #48, p.100

On the night of the sinking he heard Captain Stone of the schooner El Dorado state that he couldn’t send a boat to assist those on the steamer. #48, p.105

He assisted fellow passenger George Dawson and others with the construction of a raft as the steamer was sinking. #48, p.110

Lee was swept off the steamer’s deck by a gigantic wave. #48, p.111

He found himself struggling in the water, clinging to a piece of wreckage. #48, p.115

After his rescue, he joined other survivors in publicly praising Central America captain William Herndon for his conduct, bravery and generosity. #48, p.204

Lee, Charles John
He was a black man from Virginia who died on December 4, 1852 at age 52.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 20, Lot 1. #50, p.7

Lee, David C. (1837?--?)
Born in Kentucky, it is not known whether he was free or enslaved.
In 1869 he ran a bootblack business at 547 Clay Street in San Francisco.
He employed two people, including Horace N. Bentley.
He was a member of the Brannan Guard and of the Shiloh AME Church in Oakland. #27, p.9
He had another bootblack stand at 432 California Street in San Francisco. #27, p.14

Lee, George
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Lee, William
He was a black man from Virginia who died on May 3, 1861 at age 32.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 1, Lot 105. #50, p.7

Leidesdorff, William Alexander
He was the mate on the Lucy Ann of Baltimore when she sailed for New Orleans on August 30, 1833.
He became a naturalized U.S. citizen.
Between April 2, 1834 and February 14, 1838 he crewed on eighteen ships.
17 ships were registered at New Orleans and one ship was registered in Boston.
This last vessel sailed from Boston on November 15, 1836, but the trip terminated at New Orleans.
All of Leidesdorff’s crews were interracial.
Only 2 were born in New Orleans and both had descriptions that would “fit any man.”
All other clearly identifiable blacks were born in Maryland or northern states.
Only three claimed New Orleans residence.
Ralph Jacob and Company, a ship brokerage firm in New Orleans, supplied his crews. #16, p.66

On June 24, 1837 Angel left New Orleans for Cuba.
Nine crew members-all except the mate- jumped ship in Cuba.
Leidesdorff hired replacements in Havana.
He commanded four vessels-Eclipse, Crawford, Columbus and Angel.
These vessels carried cargo to Texas, Vera Cruz, Mexico, Honduras, and Havana. #16, p.67

He reportedly moved to New York because free blacks faced prejudice in New Orleans.
He was not welcome there as a free out-of-state black man. #16, p.70

Born in the Virgin Islands, his father William Leidesdorff was a Danish sugar planter.
His mother was Anna Marie Spark, a native woman of Negro blood.
He left the Virgin Islands as a youth and headed for New Orleans.
He engaged in maritime trade and as his fortune increased he became a master of vessels.
He trade was conducted between New Orleans and New York.
In 1841 he left New Orleans on the 106-ton schooner Julia Ann
He sailed to California and landed at Yerba Buena Cove.
He bought the first steamer to operate in California’s waters.
The steamer had no name by was commonly called the Sitka.
It was 37’ in length, 9’ in beam, 31/2’ in depth of hold, and 18”draft. #11, p.1

An American in Sitka built the vessel for use as a pleasure boat for Russian Fur Company officers.
It was a sidewheeler moved by a miniature engine.
In October, 1847 it was purchased by Leidesdorff and brought to San Francisco.
A trial trip was made on November 15th and later it went to Santa Clara and Sonoma.
On November 28, 1847 the Sitka made the first steamer trip from San Francisco to Sacramento.
It returned safely to San Francisco where it was wrecked in a gale.
Transformed into a launch or schooner and known as the Rainbow, she ran on the Sacramento River.
In 1844 he became a naturalized Mexican citizen.
He obtained a land grant of 35,000 acres on the left bank of the American River.
He named the property “Rio de los Americanos”.
The property was located next to John Sutter’s land grant.
He built San Francisco’s first hotel, “The City Hotel,” located at the corner of Clay and Kearny Streets. #11, p.2

He was involved in the import-export trade, especially the hides and tallow trade.
He built a warehouse on the corner of California and Leidesdorff Streets.
In 1845 he was appointed U.S. Vice-Consul to Mexico by Consul Thomas Oliver Larkin.
He served under the jurisdiction of military governor Commodore Stockton.
He gave aid to John Fremont and the men of the Bear Flag Revolt.
In 1846 he sent a report to Larkin on the flag-raising action in Sonoma.
Leidesdorff lived in a large home at the corner of California and Montgomery Streets.
It was located next to the present site of the Russ Building.
Large and impressive, his home was the site of lavish state entertainment.
He was host to both American and Mexican government officials.
He served the finest food and wine, and he had the only flower garden in Yerba Buena.
He held civic positions of honor and trust, including town treasurer and member of the first town council.
He was one of three members of the first school board.
He supervised the building of the first public school for children in San Francisco.
In 1847 he staged the first horse race in American California on a “meadow” near Mission Dolores.
He possessed a spirit of speculation and daring relative to this unprecedented event.
He died at the age of 38 in 1848 of a brain fever. #11, p.3

After his death he received the highest recognition as a beloved and honored citizen.
Flags flew at half-mast on ships in the port, and at half-staff at all military barracks.
Minute guns were fired as the funeral procession made its way to Mission Dolores.
At the time of his death, he had debts of $50,000 on property he owned.
U.S. Army Captain Joseph Libby Folsom sought to purchase Leidesdorff’s holdings.
He journeyed to the Virgin Island to find Leidesdorff’s mother, Anna Marie Spark.
Folsom paid her $75,000 for absolute title to all property.
Folsom died at Mission San Jose in July, 1848.
The town of Folsom, located at the site of Rio de los Americanos, was named to honor him.
Henry Halleck later built the Montgomery Block on the site owned by Leidesdorff and Folsom. #11, p.4

“Leroy”
He was a black man who lived in isolation in northern California.
He lived with a woman of the Wintoon tribe of the Mad River area.
As a result of a dispute between the two, Leroy killed two men of her tribe.
When the badly wounded man told his story in a white community, a conflict developed known as the Wintoon War. #3, p.86

Lester, Peter (1814-?)
He was born in Virginia and was a shoemaker in Philadelphia before his 1852 arrival in San Francisco.
He was co-owner of Lester and Gibbs, importers and dealers in boots and shoes.
Their shop was located at 636 Clay Street (in the Court block) in San Francisco. #27, p.9

In 1850 he arrived in California and he became involved in antislavery work in San Francisco.
He invited enslaved blacks to his home and lectured them about their rights.
He taught these domestic servants and hired-out slaves antislavery songs. #3, p.137

During the first half of the 1850s he opened a clothing store in San Francisco.
His business partner was Mifflin Gibbs, who was also from Philadelphia.
Both men had been officers in an antislavery convention held in Philadelphia in 1848.
Lester was a skilled bootmaker and the two later ran the Pioneer Boot and Shoe Emporium.
In 1858 both left for British Columbia. #3, p.98

Both Lester and his wife were originally from Philadelphia.
While there he wrote at least one letter to the Pennsylvania Freeman, an antislavery paper in Philadelphia. #3, p.190

Lester, Sarah
In 1858 the light-skinned daughter of Peter Lester was eighteen years old.
She attended an all-white primary school in San Francisco for three years.
The Spring Valley School served the white neighborhood where the Lesters lived.
She took her exams and was accepted into San Francisco’s only high school.
Although she took classes for several weeks, a letter appeared in the San Francisco Herald in January, 1858 calling for her removal.
Lester withdrew his daughter from the school and the conflict died.
The Lester family moved to British Columbia in 1858. #3, p169

“Lewis”
He was onboard the steamer Uncle Sam, headed for Panama in 1858.
He and the ship’s white cook assisted Henry Dotson to freedom.
The Wrights, a white father and son from Missouri, captured Dotson.
Dotson was rescued in Panama and returned by ship to San Francisco. #3, p.156

Lewis, Abraham
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Lewis, Charles
He was a black man from Delaware who died on November 5, 1850 at age 50.
He is buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.7

Lewis (Louis), Ed
He was a free black man from Boston who was an expert with horses.
In 1850 he volunteered to help migrants at Humboldt Sink.
He made a 250-mile ride over deserts and mountains from Sacramento.
He returned rapidly to Sacramento carrying word of the plight of the migrants. #3, p.37

In the summer of 1850 he saved the lives of many gold seekers stranded in the Humboldt Sink.
Hundreds of immigrants were immobilized, sick and starving in the Sink.
Captain William Waldo of Sacramento organized a volunteer relief party.
They traveled 250 miles through the mountains and deserts to reach the group.
Ed was a fearless man and an expert horseman.
He rode 250 miles to Sacramento and returned with life-saving supplies. #46, p.59

Lewis, Edmonia
The first black woman sculptor in the U.S., she exhibited at the San Francisco Art Association in 1873.
Today, this is the San Francisco Art Institute located at 800 Chestnut Street.
In 876 she exhibited at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. #27, p.15

Lewis, John
He was a Colored Convention leader in California who subscribed to Frederick Douglass’ Paper. #3, p.188

Lewis, John
He was a member of the Victoria, British Columbia black community, where he was a street contractor.
In 1859 he visited Peter Anderson in San Francisco. #3, p.249

Lewis, Richard
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Lewis, Sarah
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Santa Barbara in the Santa Cruz Islands. #15, p.103

Light, Allen B. (1805-?)
He was a black seaman who deserted the ship Pilgrim in 1835 and became an otter hunter.
He was known as Black Steward.
Alfred Robinson mentioned his encounter with a grizzly bear at Santa Barbara.
According to George Nidever, he was one of Graham’s men in 1836-38.
In 1839 he was a naturalized resident of Santa Barbara.
In 1839 he was appointed by a government agent to prevent illegal otter hunting.
He was in Los Angeles in 1841 and in San Diego from 1846-48 as a otter hunter. #15, p.101

He was better known as “Black Steward” among his contemporaries.
He sailed with Richard Henry Dana on the Pilgrim in the hide and tallow trade in Mexican California.
In 1835 he deserted the Pilgrim at Santa Barbara.
He became the leading otter hunter in the Santa Barbara area.
In 1839 Governor Alvarado commissioned him and he fought illegal otter hunters in the waters of the Santa Barbara area. #3, p.4

In 1835 he arrived in California, where he trapped fur along the coast with his friend George Nidever.
He was a powerful man who stabbed and shot a female grizzly bear that attacked and mauled him. #58, p.42

“Little Harry”
He was held as a slave on the Trinity River diggings by a group of whites from Arkansas.
They played poker for the use of his labor, with the winner entitled to his work for one week. #3, p.66

“Little West”
He came to California as a part of a Mississippi-Georgia company which followed the Death Valley route.
He, “Tom” and “Joe” were enslaved members of the party. #3, p.31

“Livingston”
He was a black man whose presence gave Negro Hill on the Mokelumne River its name.
Standing over six-feet tall, he was an erect figure who was dignified and well-spoken.
In four months he made over $80,000 from the Mokelumne Hills diggings.
He left California by steamer, headed off to spend his money in London.
He returned to California when the money was exhausted. #3, p.59

He purchased the mining claim of Andrew Hallidie, the future inventor of the cable car. #3, p.60

Lodine, E.
This black person from Delaware died on October 30, 1850 at age 28.
The person is buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 5, Lot 232. #50, p.7

Logan, Albert
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 with Amada Logan and became a pioneer of Santa Cruz. #15, p.103

Logan, Amanda
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 with Albert Logan and became a pioneer of Santa Cruz. #15, p.103

Logan, Clara (Miss)
She was a black girl who was a student at a public school in Red Bluff.
One of the teachers at the school was Sara Brown, daughter of John Brown.
Clara later married Albert Logan and later, as a widow, lived in San Francisco. #15, p.96

Logan, P.A.
This black person came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Red Bluff. #15, p.103

Lombard, Ann C. Woods
She was born in the West Indies around 1835.
In San Francisco she owned and ran a boardinghouse at 1006 Washington Street.
Her first husband was Charles H. Woods and her second was Eugene Peters Lombard. #27, p.1

Lombard, Eugene Peters (1826?-1870)
A native of Martinique, he was a ship steward and the 2nd husband of Ann C. Woods Lombard. #27, p.1

Lombard, Peter
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Loney, John
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville.
The Clark family came to Marysville through his influence. #15, p.102

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Long, Aleck
He was a black man who was enslaved to Oliver Granthan of St. Louis, Missouri.
In 1852 he was about fifty-seven years old, 5’ 10” tall, with dark complexion and gray hair.
He had a scar on the inside of his left leg above the ankle.
He was given his freedom on March 2, 1852, after paying four hundred dollars to Samuel Granthan.
His deed of manumission was issued in Eldorado County. #15, pp.84-85

Long, Sowarie
He was a black man who came to California with his wife and owner in 1849.
He worked in the mines to pay for the freedom of himself and his wife.
He and his wife settled in San Jose after securing their freedom. #15, p.71

“Louis”
He was a black man from New York who died on July 14, 1853 at age 45.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 345. #50, p.7

Low, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and was a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

“Lucy”
She was a black woman who lived in Auburn in 1853.
A Missourian named Brown attempted her arrest as a fugitive slave from Missouri.
In 1851 Brown’s father in Missouri granted her freedom.
She left her freedom papers with white lawyer P.W Thomas in Auburn.
Locals believed that Brown hoped her papers were either lost or in Missouri. #3, p.140

Luell, Henry
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Colusa. #15, p.103

Lyons, (Mr.)
He was a black man from Chicago who ran a hotel in Panama.
It was located on the Atlantic side and white Chicagoans stayed at his boardinghouse. #3, p.43

Mackey, James
He was a black man from North Carolina who died on August 21, 1854 at age 24.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 4, Lot 60. #50, p.7

Mahoney, Daniel
He was a 47-year-old black man from Pennsylvania who drowned when the steamer Central American was lost in a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina on September 12, 1857. #48, p.252

He was the uncle of Barney M. Lee, a mulatto, and they were steerage passengers on the ship.
He had operated the Magnolia Saloon in Nevada City, CA. #48, p. 66

He was a 47-year-old mulatto who suffered with rheumatism. #48, p.97

He was too infirm to survive the sinking of the steamer and drowned. #48, p.110

“Margaret”
She was a black woman who lived in Sacramento.
She was married to “Lawrence”, a black man, on May 23, 1850.
Congregational minister Robert Deal performed the ceremony.
William Marr claimed her as his property and kidnapped her at gunpoint.
Marr offered to release her upon the payment to him of $1,000. #3, p.133; #15, p.87

Marney, Jack
He came to California by overland trail along with David Cosad’s party.
He was a mulatto slave who ran away at the diggings at Placerville after he had dug $1,000 for his owner.
Cosad’s party of five white miners took him in. #23

In 1849 he dug $1,000 in gold toward his purchase from his owner.
He left to join northern white miners before earning the full amount. #3, p.72

Marryat, Henry
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Marsh, W.
This black person died on March 12, 1855 at age 35 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 250. #50, p.7

Marshall, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Members of the 4th Colored Convention held in October 1865 included “Peter” Bell and Andrew Bristol of San Francisco, James Floyd, A.J. White, G.A. Smith, S.J. Marshal, Peter Cassey and Mrs. William A Smith, all of San Jose. #15, p.63

Martin, Jennie
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Rough and Ready. #15, p.103

“Mary”
She was the first black woman who came to California from the States.
She was also the first slave to achieve freedom in the West through the courts.
In 1846 her owner brought her from Missouri.
They settled in San Jose, where she was freed by justice of the peace John Burton.
Mexican law forbid slavery and Americans were committed to respecting Mexican laws. #3, pp.8-9

“Mary”
She was a black woman brought as a slave to Nevada, California from Missouri by Best in 1860.
Before he returned to Missouri in 1854 Mary purchased her freedom by borrowing money.
Soon she married black man Harry Dorsey and lived happily ever after. #15, p.87

Mason, Ann
She was an enslaved black girl when she came by ox-team to California in 1851 with her mother Biddy and her sisters Ellen and Harriett.
She died on August 1, 1857.

Mason, Benjamin
He was a black man who was the brother of Ellen Mason.
After purchasing her own freedom, she sent for him and began paying for his release from bondage.
He learned that California was a free state and ran away from his owner.
His sister was not required to continue paying the bill of sale cost. #15, p.71

Mason, (Bridget) Biddy (?-1891)
She and her family moved to Utah with their owner Robert Smith in 1851.
In 1852 Mason came to San Bernardino as an enslaved black woman.
In 1855 Smith moved to Texas and Mason and her family stayed in California.
Judge Hayes freed them.
Mason moved to Santa Monica, and then later, to Los Angeles.
She took up housework and nursing and she also owned a ranch.
Eventually she became one of the wealthiest blacks in Los Angeles. #3, p.120

She came to California from Mississippi at age 32.
Walking behind the three hundred wagons of her masters group, her job was to keep the cattle together.
In 1856 her owner decided to return home with his slaves. #4, p.129

Mason refused to return to the South and convinced the local sheriff to press her case.
She won freedom for herself and her three daughters.
She acquired large parcels of land through hard work and clever saving.
She donated money for schools, churches, nursing homes and she also aided flood victims.
She brought food to undernourished men in local jails.
She died in 1891. #4, p.130

She was born enslaved in Hancock County, Georgia.
In 1851 she crossed the plains following a wagon of owner Robert Smith.
She herded sheep during the journey to San Bernardino in California.
After obtaining freedom Mason and her children moved to Los Angeles.
She secured a job as a practical nurse, working for $2.50 per day.
She saved her money and bought two parcels of land (about ten acres).
She paid $250 for the land and sold it five years later for $200,000.
The land had become the center of the downtown business district of Los Angeles. #46, p.70

Mason, Ellen (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California with her owner in 1849.
She contracted to pay fifty cents a week toward the purchase of her freedom.
After acquiring her freedom papers she paid for the freedom of her sister. .
She sent for her brother Benjamin and was paying for his freedom when he ran away.
She lived for many years and died in the Home for Aged Colored Citizens in Beulah. #15, p.71

Mason, Ellen (Mrs. Owens)
She was a black woman born into slavery on October 15, 1838 in Hinds County, Missouri.
She came by ox-team to California in 1851.with her mother Biddy Mason and her sisters Ann and Harriett.
She and her family were granted freedom in Los Angeles on January 19, 1854.
She married Robert Owens oldest son Charles P. in Los Angeles on October 16, 1856.
Their sons were named Robert C. and Henry L. Owens.
When her sons were old enough, her husband sent them all to Oakland for education.
Her husband died in 1882 and she later married Mr. Huddleston.
She eventually resided at the Home of the Aged and Infirm Colored People in Beulah. #15, pp.106, 109-110

Mason, George W.
He was a black miner in a partnership with white Benjamin Bowen, his father and brother and two other whites.
He mined near the town of Fort John, near Volcano, California.
The partnership began in 1852 and ran for several years. #3, p.59

Mason, Harriett
She was an enslaved black girl when she came by ox-team to California in 1851 with her mother Biddy and her sisters Ann and Ellen.
She was Mrs. Harriett Mason-Washington when she died on June 9, 1914. #15, pp.109-110

Mason, Henry
He was a black man from Massachusetts who died on November 5, 1850.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.7

Mathews, George
He was a black man from Maryland who died on August 21, 1859 at age 30.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Lot 246. #50, p.7

Mathews, William
He was a frail, young black man who came enslaved to California in 1858.
His owner Dr. McCormick, an Army officer, and his wife brought him.
The group, which included two other slaves, lived on Clay Street near Portsmouth Plaza in San Francisco.
In 1859 the doctor made plans to return to his Maryland home.
Seven or eight black men carried Mathews away to parts unknown, according to a newspaper entry.
Later, Mathews returned to Dr. McCormick and he went with the McCormicks on the steamer Sonora. #3, p.154

Mathews, William R.
He was a free black man from Massachusetts who owned the Golden Gate boardinghouse in San Francisco.
He catered exclusively to black seamen.
He gave the alarm at the boardinghouse announcing the plight of slave William Mathews and he assisted with his temporary rescue. #3, p.155

Maulbine, Benjamin
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Mawy, Martin
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Rough and Ready. #15, p.103

Mayhew, John
He was a black man from Africa who died on September 2, 1852 at age 22.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.7

McAfee, Joe
He was a black member of the Bear Flag Party in 1846.
Other black members of the group included John Grider, Billy Gaston and Charles G. Gains. #15, p.33

McDonald, (Mr.)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

McDonald, William (1841?- )
He was a black man who worked as a cook and resided at 321 California Street in San Francisco. #27, p.14

McGains, Roderick
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Strawberry Valley in El Dorado County. #15, p.103

McGowan, Charles
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

McGowan, Dorothea
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

She was a mulatto woman from Columbus, Ohio.
In 1852 she settled in Marysville with her husband, Jess McGowan.
She did laundry and saved her money.
By 1860 the McGowans had $12,000 in real estate and $3,000 in personal estate. #3, p.112

McGowan, Jess
He was a native of Ohio and the husband of Dorothea McGowan.
By 1852 they had settled in Marysville, where he worked as a barber.
By 1860 the McGowans had $12,000 in real estate and $3,000 in personal estate. #3, p.112

McGowan, M.
He was one of the black owners of the Sweet Vengeance Mine in Brown’s Valley.
Other company members who worked the claim were Gabriel Simms, Fritz James Vosburg, Abraham Freeman Holland, Edward Duplex and James Cousins. #15, p.104

McKinney, Joseph
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

McLeMar, (Mr.)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of North San Joaquin. #15, p.103

Mendenhall, (Mr.)
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of Redlands. #15, p.103

Mercier, Charles
He was a successful barber from Louisiana.
He lived with his family in the Fourth Ward, a white middle-class neighborhood in San Francisco’s North Beach.
James Sullivan and his family were also black residents of this district. #3, p.105

He was a native of Louisiana who arrived in San Francisco in 1856.
He was a member of the first party of California emigrants who left for British Columbia in 1858.
He was a member of the delegation who interviewed Governor Douglass of British Columbia.
He later returned to barbering in San Francisco and Portland, Oregon.
In 1859 he and Peter W. Cassey were partners in the operation of a San Francisco shaving saloon.
Their business was located in the basement of the Union Hotel at 642 Merchant Street. #27, p.5

Charles, Wellington Moses and Fortune Richard were the members of a delegation selected to interview British Columbia Governor Douglas in 1858.
Within two weeks of their arrival, Charles returned to San Francisco’s Zion Church.
He made a report and read letters from Moses and other members of the Pioneer Committee. #58, pp.64-65

Mesa, Antonio
He was one of the black Spaniards who founded the pueblo of Los Angeles on September 4, 1781. #58, p.40

Meshaw, John F.
He was a black man from the West Indies who ran a boot and shoe shop in Sacramento.
The business was connected with the Lester and Gibbs shop in San Francisco. #3, p.109

He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention selected in 1865.
The committee included F.G. Barbadoes as president, Solomon Peneton as vice-president, Henry Hall as corresponding secretary, James R. Starkey as treasurer, Shadrack Howard as recording secretary, William Yates, Henry Collins, William H. Hall, James P. Dyer, J. Madison Bell, Edward W. Parker, David W. Ruggles and John F. Meshaw. #15, p.63

A native of South Carolina, he had a retail shoe store in Sacramento in 1857.
In 1860 the store relocated to 539 California Street in San Francisco.
He resided nearby at 623 California Street.
Later, he was employed at the U.S. Mint. #27, p.15

Middleton, George
He was a black man from New York who died on October 12, 1857 at age 34.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 27, Lot 18. #50, p.7

Miles, Henry
He was a black man who came to California in 1853 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

He was the father of vocalist Sarah Miles who married well-known musician Alexander C. Taylor. #27, p.1

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Miles, Sarah
She was the daughter of Henry Miles and a music vocalist.
She married Alexander C. Taylor, a well-known musician, and the couple went east for musical training.
They later toured the U.S. and Europe. #27, p.1

Miller, Ed
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Miller, Elizabeth
She was a black woman who came to California and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Miller, Elizabeth
She was a black woman who came to California in 1853 and became a pioneer of Petaluma. #15, p.103

Miller, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Miller, Newton
He was a young black man who mined near Mormon Island in California. #3, p.9

Miller, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Salinas City. #15, p.103

Mills, Edward
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Mills, Isaac
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Mills, Richard
He was a black man who died on July 21, 1851 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.7

Milton, Daniel
He was a black man from North Carolina who died on November 3, 1850 at age 25.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.7

Minor, (Mr.)
He, J.B.Sanderson and Robinson of Stockton went armed into San Joaquin County and liberated slaves.
The men convinced the enslaved blacks of their friendship and then carried them to freedom. #15, p.92

Mitchell, Bob
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Mitchell, Edgar P.
He was a black child born in California who died on April 4, 1859 at age 1 year, 5 months.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at SE ¼, 196. #50, p.7

Mitchell, George
He was a young black man who was brought to California as a slave in 1849.
His former owner arrested him and a trial over his status took place in San Jose in 1855.
Three local lawyers defended him and were successful in delaying a decision until the California Fugitive Slave Law expired in April 1855. #3, p.147

He was a first floor bellman at the Palace Hotel in San Francisco.
From his wages and tips he acquired a fortune of $30,000-$40,000 at the time of his death. #45, p.36

Mitchison, Charles
On September 2, 1856 he was a member of the financial committee established for Mirror of the Times.
The committee included Nathan Pointer, W.D. Moses, Charles Mitchison, Reverend Barney Fletcher,
Charles B. Smith, F. Spotts, and Henry F. Sampson. #3, p.220

Monroe, George
He was a black man who worked for Russell, Majors and Waddell on the Pony Express.
He was a rider between Merced and Mariposa. #15, p.48

Monroe, L.A.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Mariposa, where he was a stage driver. #15, p.103

Monroe, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Downieville. #15, p.103

Moody, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Moore, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Gold Hill, where he was the porter of the bank. #15, p.103

Moore, John
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of San Diego. #15, p.103

Moore, John Jamison (Reverend)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Born a slave, he established the first black church in San Francisco in 1852.
The AME Zion Church was located on Stockton Street, between Broadway and Vallejo Streets. #3, p.159

In 1854 he was the first teacher at the San Francisco school for black children.
The first school in the state for blacks, it opened on May 22, 1854.
The school was located in St. Cyprian’s AME Church on Jackson Street.
In June, 1857 he was officially appointed principal of the Negro Children’s School.
He received his salary from city funds and was appointed by the city board of education.
In 1858 he joined the black emigration to British Columbia.
Reverend J.B. Sanderson was selected as his replacement as teacher and principal. #3, p.167

He was one of a group of black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Philip Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp54-55

On August 19, 1856 he was elected to the publishing committee for Mirror of the Times.
The committee also included J.H. Townsend, William Newby, Nathan Pointer and H.M. Collins. #3, p.219

He was an officer of the Livingstone Institute, which was organized in 1860 as the West’s first attempt at acquiring a secondary school for black children.
Investors money was returned with interest in 1863 due to a change in the situation.
Officers of the Institute were Barney Fletcher (President), Reverend Moore (Financial, Traveling Secretary), John A. Barber, William Hall, James Sampson, William Ringold, David W. Ruggles , William A. Carter and R.T. Houston (Trustees), Henry M. Collins and Nathaniel Gray (Treasurers). #27, p.7

He found many friends and acquaintances from California living in British Columbia.
100 blacks were living in Cariboo, British Columbia. #45, p.64

A letter sent by Moore from Williams’ Creek, Cariboo appeared in The Pacific Appeal on July 11, 1863.
The 3,000 residents of Cariboo included 100 black men, many of whom were friends and acquaintances.
He stated that provisions were expensive, but the climate was healthy and prospects for blacks were good.
#54, pp.209-10

Moore, Priscilla (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Moreno, Charles
He was a free black man from Massachusetts who assisted with the attempted rescue of slave William Mathews in San Francisco.
His wife may have attempted to harbor the Indian girl “Shasta” from servitude in San Francisco. #3, p154

Moreno, Jose
He was a mulatto and one of the Spaniards who founded Los Angeles pueblo on September 4, 1781. #58, p.40

Morris, Henry S.
In 1857 he and A.H. Buler were co-owners of a clothing renovating and cleaning business in San Francisco
The business was located under the Union Hotel on Merchant Street.
Later, he owned several saloons, including the Union Club (1870), the Lincoln (1875), and the Lotus Club (1888). #27, p.7

Morris, William
He was a black man from Massachusetts who died on July 22, 1850 at age 40.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 13, Lot 69. #50, p.7

Morrison, William H.
He was a black man from Missouri who died on February 4, 1854 at age 42.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 13. #50, p.7


18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
Copyright © 2002-2008 by AfriGeneas. All rights reserved.
AfriGeneas ~ African Ancestored Genealogy