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AfriGeneas Western Frontier Forum

Post #5 - CAAP
In Response To: Post #4 - CAAP ()

California’s African American Pioneers
Developed and Submitted by Guy Washington
National Park Service
1111 Jackson Street, Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607
510-817-1390
January 3, 2005

Hicks, Henry – Lay, Hark

Hicks, Henry
He was a black man from New York who died on November 13, 1850 at age 50.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 1, Lot 95. #50, p.6

Hicks, John
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Hill, Robert A.
He was a black man from the West Indies who died on March 11, 1854 at age 30.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 293. #50, p.6

Hill, Stephen S.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 from Arkansas along with his owner Samuel Tucker.
In the 1850s before Tucker left Gold Springs in Tuolumne County for Arkansas, he gave Hill his freedom.
Hill remained in Tuolumne County where he became a produce farmer and accumulated land valued at $4,000.
In August 1854 Hill was seized at home in Gold Springs by whites and taken to Sonora as a fugitive slave.
Mr. Rozier claimed to be the agent of Hill’s former owner.
Detained in jail in Sonora, Hill was allowed sufficient time by Judge Quint to retain legal representation.
Hill’s white friends hired a lawyer and searched his home in vain for his freedom papers.
Their suspicion was that his white captors stole them.
Hill’s crops were harvested and his stock hidden by unknown friends who were probably his white friends.
Rozier took Hill to Stockton, where he was brought in chains onboard the ship Urilda for transportation to San Francisco.
Before departure Rozier was gotten drunk at Stockton’s St. Charles Hotel by Gold Springs men, who were probably Hill’s friends.
The Urilda left without Hill and the September 25, 1854 edition of the San Joaquin Republican declared his freedom. #3, p.140

Hillary, William (Reverend)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Hinds, Wiley
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of Visalia. #15, p.103

Hodge, Phillip Barney
He was a black man who died on September 18, 1864 at age 27.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 216. #50, p.6

Holcomb, Aaron
He was a 40-year-old black man who worked as a saloon cook on board the steamer Central America when she was lost in a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina on September 12, 1857.
He was rescued by the bark Ellen after the Central America sank. #48, p.257

He lived in New York City with his wife, Ann, and five children, and he died about 1900. #48, p.235

Holland, Abraham Freeman
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He was one of the black owners of the Sweet Vengeance Mine in Brown’s Valley.
Other company members who worked the claim were Gabriel Simms, Fritz James Vosburg, Edward Duplex, James Cousins and M. McGowan. #15, p.104

He was one of the black owners of the Sweet Vengeance Mine in Brown’s Valley.
The other owners included Fritz Vosburg, Gabriel Simms and several others. #46, p.68

The mine operated from 1848-1854.
He assisted Vosbury in a fight with claim jumpers at the mine.
Reporters Robert Purvis and William Wells Brown in an article that appeared in Garrison’s Liberator described the incident. #46, p. 69

He was a mine owner who purchased freedom for his family members. #46, p.86

Holland, Albert
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.103

Holland, H.H. (Doctor)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sutter’s Creek. #15, p.103

Hollman, John Alex
He was a black child born in Ohio who died on June 25, 1864 at age 4 years, 9 months.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 306. #50, p.6

Holmes, Edwin
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Holmes, Elias
He was a black man who died on September 12, 1851 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 4, Lot 489. #50, p.6

Hopkins, A.S.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Horace,
This was a black man who died on June 22, 1851 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 13, Lot 56. #50, p.6

Houston, Richard T. (1807-1888)
He came to San Francisco from Guilford, South Carolina.
He became the superintendent of the First AME Zion Church Sunday School in San Francisco.
He was a member of Nil Desperadum Mining Company, with works at Lancha Plana, Amador County.
He was a merchant tailor with his shop at 645 Merchant Street, opposite the Union Hotel in San Francisco.
He was an officer of the Livingstone Institute, which was organized in 1860 as the West’s first attempt at establishing a secondary school for blacks.
In 1863 investors’ money was returned with interest due to a change in the legal situation. The officers were Barney Fletcher (President), Rev. J.J. Moore (Financial and Traveling Secretary), John A. Barber, William Hall, James Sampson, William Ringold, David W. Ruggles, William H. Carter, and Richard T. Houston (Trustees), Henry M. Collins and Nathaniel Gray (Treasurers). #27, p.7

Houston signed an 1862 petition in San Francisco for better education for black children.
Those who signed were J.B. Sanderson, Barney Fletcher, H.F. Sampson, Isaac Reed, John Kinney, Charles A. Smith, P. Anderson, J. Madison Bell, Samuel E. Burris, A.B. Smith, and R.T. Houston. #3, p.176

Howard, Franklin
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Howard, Shadrack (1820-1864)
He was the son of abolitionist Richard Johnson and the grandson of merchant ship captain Paul Cuffe.
He was active in the New Bedford antislavery movement.
He gave up on whaling and went to California where he joined a movement to win franchise for blacks.
#3, p.101

He was a sailmaker, seaman and “vitualer” in New Bedford before coming to California.
He had a reputation as an inventor.
He ran a hydraulic hose factory in San Francisco. #45, p.190

He was a black man who was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts.
He learned sail making at James Forten’s Philadelphia firm.
He was a sail maker, inventor and spiritualist who lived in San Francisco at 521 Sacramento Street.
In 1860 his hydraulic hose manufacturing business was located at 421 Davis Street in San Francisco.
He moved to British Columbia and became an officer of Victoria Lodge No. 3.
He died in Central America. #27, p.13

He served on a special committee selected by the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention.
The Executive Committee met in San Francisco during 1863 after passage of the Testimony Bill.
Solomon Peneton recommended the appointment of this committee at a Scott Street church meeting.
C. Wilson moved that a committee of three would be sufficient.
Elected were T.M.D. Ward as president, Peter Anderson as secretary, Alex Ferguson, J.B. Sanderson, F.G. Barbadoes, Shadrack Howard and William Yates. #15, p.60

He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention selected in 1865.
The committee included F.G. Barbadoes as president, Solomon Peneton as vice-president, Henry Hall as corresponding secretary, James R. Starkey as treasurer, Shadrack Howard as recording secretary, William Yates, Henry Collins, William H. Hall, James P. Dyer, J. Madison Bell, Edward W. Parker, David W. Ruggles and John F. Meshaw. #15, p.63

Hubbard, J.H. (Reverend)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Hubbard, James
He was a black man who was a delegate from Sacramento at the Second Colored Convention in 1856. #46, p.85

Huff, Bill
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Hughes, Jessie
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Humphries, George
He was a black man from New Jersey who died on September 20, 1851 at age 40.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 4, Lot 485. #50, p.6

Hunter, Henry
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of El Cajon Valley. #15, p.103

Hutchison, Susie
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Hutchison, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1853 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Hyers, Mrs.
She was a black woman who moved from New York City to Sacramento with her husband Samuel and her infant daughter, Anna, in 1856.
Her second daughter, Emma, was born in Sacramento in 1857. #58, p.18

Hyers, Anna Madah
As an infant, she moved to Sacramento from New York City with her father and mother in 1856. #58, p.18

She was one of the famed Hyers Sisters of Sacramento who were the most important black musicians in California during the 19th century.
On April 22, 1867 the sisters debuted at the Metropolitan Theater in Sacramento.
Beginning in 1871 they toured the Northern and Western U.S., with Alexander C. Taylor as their accompanist. #27, p.1

In 1870 the sisters appeared at the Bush Street Theater, which was located on the south side of Bush between Kearny and Montgomery Streets in San Francisco.
They began a 4-week run in Urlina the African Princess. #27, p.16

Hyers, Emma Louise
She was born in Sacramento in 1857, after her parents moved from New York City in 1856. #58, p.18

She was one of the famed Hyers Sisters of Sacramento, who were the most important black musicians in California during the 19th century.
On April 22, 1876 the sisters debuted at the Metropolitan Theater in Sacramento.
Beginning in 1871 they toured the Northern and Western U.S. with Alexander C. Taylor as their accompanist. #17, p.1

In 1870 the sisters appeared at the Bush Street Theater, which was located on the south side of Bush between Kearny and Montgomery Streets in San Francisco.
They began a four-week run in Urlina the African Princess. #27, p16

Hyers, Samuel B.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

He moved to California at age 26 from his native New York City in 1856 with his wife and infant daughter Anna.
In Sacramento he resumed his trade as a barber at the Orleans Hotel, located on Second Street, between J and K.
He later opened his own Pacific Barber Shop in Sacramento on K Street, near 6th.
His second daughter Emma was born in Sacramento in 1857.
He and his wife paid for music lessons and managed the two young girls in their singing careers. #58, p.18

Ingraham, (Mr.)
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of San Bernardino. #15, p.103

“Isaac”
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 as a servant to Brigadier-General Persifer F. Smith. #20, p.72

His loyalty to his General Smith gave William T. Sherman a kindly feeling of respect for Negroes.
General Smith stated they were the only real gentlemen in California. #20, p.75

“Isaac”
He was a black man from Alabama who died on December 4, 1850 at age 50.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.6

Isaacs, Isaac
He was a black man who trained as a boxer in Philadelphia.
He came to California from New York with white antislavery man Reverend Sherlock Bristol.
He worked in the mining district in Coyoteville, near Downieville. #3, p.62

“Isadore”
He was an elderly black man who gained his freedom before coming to California.
In 1850 he went to work near Grass Valley, where he mined for Franklin Morse.
He earned money to pay for his wife’s freedom. #3, p.71

Israel-Ash, Mary Ann
She was a black woman who mortgaged her home in Sonoma in 1852.
She raised $1,100 and paid a slaveowner for the freedom of a family being returned to the South. #15, p.71

Jacks, Ralph
He was a black man from Maryland who died on December 11, 1853 at age 27.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 189. #50, p.7

“Jackson”
An early black migrant to California, he was known in the Bay Area for his cooking skill.
He served as cook for the first California company on the Nicaragua route. #3, p.38; #46, p.59

Jackson, (Mr.)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sonora. #15, p.103

Jackson, A.
In 1866 he was elected Orderly Sergeant of the newly formed Brannan Guards.
Other officers selected by the 45 members were A.B. Dennison, Captain, James Phillips, 1st Lieutenant and William H. Alexander, 2nd Lieutenant. #58, p.24

The Brannan Guards drilled Wednesdays at their armory at 925 Pacific Street in San Francisco.
In 1870 the unit marched in the parade celebrating the ratification of the 15th Amendment. #58, p.25

Jackson, Aaron L.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Jackson, Carter
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Jackson, Isaac
He was a black man who came to California in 1850 and became a pioneer of El Cajon Valley. #15, p103

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Jackson, Joshua
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Jackson, Peter
He was a black man who came to California from Brooklyn, New York in 1857 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Jackson, S.M.
This black person came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Jackson, Samuel
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Jackson, “Stone Wall”
He was one of the blacks who left California for British Columbia in the late 1850s. #15, p.78

Jackson, Walter
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He came to California via Cape Horn from Boston and located at Downieville. #15, p.104

Jacobs, John S. (1815--1875)
He was born into slavery in Edenton, North Carolina in 1815. #39, p. xxvii

His parents Delilah and Elijah Jacobs were both enslaved, with his father working as a house carpenter. #39, p. xi

His uncle Joseph ran away from Edenton, was recapture in New York and escaped again from New Orleans.
He met his enslaved brother Mark Ramsey in New York before disappearing forever.
Ramsey hired his time as a steward on a passenger boat and used his position to assist freedom seekers.
#39, pp. xiv, p.235

In 1837 John went to Washington, D.C. with his owner newly elected Congressman Samuel Tredwell Sawyer. #39, p. xviii

He traveled with Sawyer to Chicago, Canada, Buffalo and Niagra Falls in New York.
Sawyer instructed him to say he was a hired free man if asked. #39, p.247

While he was with Sawyer in Canada he attempted to acquire a seaman’s protection paper from the English Custom House, but he refused to lie to get it. #39, p.247

In 1839 he escaped from Sawyer while they were staying at the Aster House Hotel in New York. #39, p.xix, p.248

John went to New Bedford and stayed for several months. #39, p.249

When he arrived in New Bedford he was introduced to William P___(Powell?), an elderly black man who had been enslaved in Alexandria.
John shipped out on whaler Frances Henrietta to earn money and educate himself while at sea.
He returned to the U.S. after 3 ½ years and found that Harriet was in New York. #39, p.250

Fear of recapture led him and Harriet to settle in Boston for several years. #39, p.251

John served as corresponding secretary of Boston’s black New England Freedom Society.
In 1848-49 he toured as a paid lecturer of the New England Anti-Slavery Society.
In 1849 he purchased the Rochester Antislavery Office and Reading Room.
The bookstore was located above Douglass’s North Star newspaper offices.
His sister Harriet joined him in Rochester after she too escaped from Edenton.
Jacobs reading room failed, as did an oyster restaurant. #39, p.xx

After the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, he went to California to pan for gold.
While living in London, his book A True Tale of Slavery was published serially in the magazine Leisure Hour in February, 1861. #39, p.xxi

John died in 1875 and is buried next to his sister Harriet in Mt. Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, MA. #39, p.xxii

He was the brother of Harriet A. Jacobs, author of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl.
He was born enslaved in North Carolina in 1815. #41, p.223

He shipped out on the whaler Frances Henrietta on August 4, 1839.
He had been working days and attending school at night in New Bedford.
The ship returned to port on February 16, 1843, three and one-half years later.
He took his pay and went to New York to see his sister. #41, pp. 284-285

In 1838 he ran away from Congressman Sawyer in New York.
In 1849 he was an antislavery lecturer in Rochester, New York.
In 1850 he went to California to pan for gold.
His sister Harriet’s son Joseph joined him in 1850. #41, p.224

By 1853 both John and Joseph were mining in Australia, according to a letter from William Nell to Amy Post on July 21, 1853. #41, p.249

John married an Englishwoman and lived primarily in London.
He published his slave narrative A True Tale of Slavery in the Leisure Hour (London) in February 1861.
He returned to the United States after the Civil War.
His June 5, 1861 letter to Isaac Post form London appeared in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on June 29, 1861. #41, p.249

Harriet Jacobs joined her brother John in Rochester in March 1849 and left in September 1850.
From March to July 1849 John was manager of the Anti-Slavery Office and Reading Room in Rochester.
He was lecturing and organizing for abolitionists of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society and the New England Anti-Slavery Office. #41, p.288

With no memory of his dead mother, Delilah, he and his older sister learned to hate slavery from their father Elijah Knox. #59, p.7

On January 1, 1826 James Norcom purchased John for $298.50 and put him to work in his office in Edenton. #59, pp.21-22

Fearing recapture after passage of the Fugitive Slave Law, he left New York for California in 1850. #59, p.108

Jacobs, Joseph (1829--?)
The son of famous freedom seeker Harriet Jacobs, he was born in Edenton, North Carolina in 1829.
He died in Australia, presumably in 1863. #39, p. xxvii

He was the son of Harriet Jacobs and Samuel Tredwell Sawyer, a white man who served a term in Congress, beginning in 1837. #39. p.xvii

After his mother escaped from Edenton in 1842, he was sent to join her in New York.
His mother then sent him to join her brother John S. Jacobs in New Bedford. #39, p.xix

He joined his uncle John S. Jacobs in California at the age of 21. #39, p.xxi

A writ issued on August 26, 1830 by Dr. James Norcom listed infant Joseph and his mother Harriet for sale in order to pay his debts. #59, p.33

As a teenager he joined his mother and his uncle John Jacobs in Boston. #59, p.72

In 1844 he was enrolled in the segregated Smith School in Boston. #59, p.77

In 1845, when his mother left for a trip to England, he was apprenticed to a white print shop in Boston. #59, p.83

Not yet eighteen, he ran away from his apprenticeship and shipped out on a whaler. #59, p87

In 1849, at the age of twenty and after three years at sea, he was reunited with his mother in New York City. #59, pp.104-105

In 1852 Joseph joined his uncle John in the rush from California to the Australian gold fields. #59, p.113

Although initially he wrote his mother letters from Australia, he eventually dropped from sight. #59, p.224

A letter received by Harriet from a stranger claimed that Joseph was ill and needed money to return home.
She sent $400 in gold for Joseph’s passage to his supposed friend in Melbourne, but Joseph never returned. #59, p.225

An image thought to be Joseph is found among the photographs in Jean Yellin’s Harriet Jacobs. #59

Jamison, George
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

“Jane”
She came along with a white Southern company to California by way of the Gila Trail.
Also in the party was “Bob” and both blacks were probably enslaved. #3, p.31

Jefferson, Gates
He was an enslaved man who escaped to California at the beginning of the gold rush.
In June 1849 he put on a one-man show in San Francisco, near the Silver Street kindergarten in Tar Flat.
He sang several of his own songs in a rich baritone voice.
He performed a series of monologues in Yankee dialect, including a seven-voice rendition of a New England town meeting. #46, p.141

“Jenkins”
He was an old black man who struck rich diggings two and a half miles from Stockton. #3, p.54

Jenkins, George
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

“Jenny”
She was a black girl born in California who died on January 7, 1854 at age 1 year, 6 months.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 344. #50, p.7

“Jim”
He was a black man from Washington, D.C. who mined on the American River in 1849.
He was sent by John Sutter with a mixed group of Germans, Scots, and Kanakas to mine gold. #3, p.62

“Joe”
He came to California by the Death Valley route as part of a Mississippi-Georgia company.
He and “Tom” and “Little West” were enslaved members of the group. #3, p.31

“Joe”
He was a black cook at a mining camp near Indian Bar in Tuolumne County.
He was a central figure at a July 4th celebration when he and another black man gave a concert. #3, p.90

“Joe”
He was brought to California from Kentucky by his owner Ferguson in the 1850s.
He was sold to James Reed, for whom he worked for several years in San Jose. #55, p.17

“John”
He was a black man from Kentucky who received his freedom from a white officer at the end of the Mexican War.
He earned his passage to California from El Paso, Texas by cooking, barbering and caring for the horses of military units. #3, p.26

“John”
He was An enslaved black man who came to California from Nashville, Tennessee as part of a southern company.
Also in the company was another enslaved man named “Walker.” #3, p.27

Johns, John T.
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Placerville. #15, p.103

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Johnson
He was a black man from Massachusetts who died on January 18, 1853 at age 24.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 4, Lot 121. #50, p.6

Johnson, B.A.
He was a black who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Johnson, Charles
He was a black man from New York who died on November 13, 1852 at age 45.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 122. #50, p.6

Johnson, David
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

He was a black man who came from New Bedford, Massachusetts.
While traveling to California onboard the steamer John J. Stevens, he befriended fugitive slaves Jane Elizabeth Whiting and her family. #1

He was a free black man who came to California via the Panama route from New Bedford, Massachusetts.
He was onboard the steamer John L. Stevens with several white abolitionists from Boston.
He learned that Elizabeth Whiting and her family were being transported as slaves to Petaluma, California.
When the ship landed in San Francisco he took them for safety to a colored boardinghouse.
The Harper and West Boarding House was located at the corner of Clay and Kearney Streets. #15, pp.91-92

Johnson, Edgar
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Johnson, Edward
He was a black activist from New York State who came to California in 1850.
He made the journey along with Daniel Seals, another black New York activist.
He left New York on the Empire City bound for Panama and California. #3, p.39; #46, p.60

Johnson, Ezra Rothschild (18l4?-1870)
He was a black man from New Bedford, Massachusetts.
He helped establish San Francisco’s Atheneum Institute along with other Eastern antislavery activists, including Jacob Francis, William H. Newby, Mifflin Gibbs, James A. Starkey and W.H. Harper. #3, p.100

In 1859 he was the secretary of the California Savings and Land Association. Other officers of the group were Henry M. Collins (President), Peter Anderson (Vice-President), William H. Hall, Edward Cain, Thomas Bundy, Benjamin Harris, Thomas Taylor, and G.W. Dennis (Board of Directors). #3, p.265

His grandfather was Paul Cuffe, the wealthy New England ship captain and merchant.
His father fought in the War of 1812.
Johnson had a business office in San Francisco at 710 Washington.
He was known as “The Natural Physician and Great Pain Annihilator.”
In 1862 he experimented with the use of nitrous oxide. #27, p.4

Originally from New Bedford, Massachusetts, he may have left for California in 1849 or 1850.
His name appears as a “Contributor” in several 1865 issues of Pacific Appeal, though it is unclear which articles he wrote due to lack of credit citation. #1

Johnson, George
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Johnson, Henry
He was a black man from Rhode Island who died on September 2, 1852 at age 23.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 74. #50, p.6

Johnson, J.B.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Johnson, J.H.
He was a black man on the board of trustees for the Rare, Ripe Gold and Silver Mining Company.
The mine was located in Brown’s Valley in Yuba County and the offices were located in Marysville.
Although the trustees were all 49ers, the company was not organized until 1868.
The board of trustees included John H. Gassoway as president, E.P. Duplex as secretary and treasurer, G.W. Simms and J.H. Johnson.
1,200 shares represented the capitol stock and 300 shares were offered for sale at $10 each. #15, p.105

Johnson, Jacob
He came to California from St. Louis. #1

He was a black man who came to California with his owner from St. Louis.
He worked in the mines and paid for his freedom.
He later sent a large sum of money back to St. Louis to pay for the freedom of his family.
He never received word from his family and he didn’t recover the money sent. #15, p.71

Johnson, James (Mrs.)
She ran a boardinghouse in San Francisco at 918 Washington Street (at Stone Street).
Among her boarders were Frederick Douglass and Jonathan M. Flowers. #27, p.3

Johnson, Mason
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of San Bernardino. #15, p.103

Johnson, Nathan
Nathan and his wife gave food and shelter to Frederick Douglass when he arrived in New Bedford.
David Ruggles of New York referred Douglass to the Johnsons. #5, p.242

He gave Frederick Douglass his final freedman’s name after deciding New Bedford already had too many Johnsons, Frederick’s first choice and that of nearly every other runaway in New Bedford.
Johnson took the name of the Scottish chief Douglas and another “s” was added to the end.
Formerly, Douglass had been Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey of Maryland. #5, p. 343

Johnson, Reuben (or Ruben)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Johnson, Robert
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Salinas City. #15, p.103

Jones, Hank
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Jones, J.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Jones, John
He was a black man who was the body servant of Senator David Broderick when he was killed in 1859.
He went to Washington, D.C. as a valet and confidential servant.
In San Francisco he was put in charge of the warehouse which served as the armory for the Vigilance Committee.
He was present when the committee seized a barge load of rifles sent from the governor in Sacramento. #15, p.50

Jones, John A.
He was one of a group of black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Philip Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp54-55

Jones, John M.
He was a black gold miner from New Bedford, Massachusetts.
He was part of a mixed company on the Yuba River, at a place known alternately as “Negro Bar” and “Union Bar”.
The company included 30 whites and 10 blacks, including those born in the South.
In April 1850 he was killed in an encounter with Indians.
While attempting to recover his body four men (2 blacks and 2 whites) drowned when their boat capsized while crossing a stream. #3, p.61

Jones, Joshua
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Colusa. #15, p.103

Jones, Nimrod
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Jones, Rebecca
She was one of 14 fugitives who escaped from Norfolk, Virginia on Captain Fountain’s schooner, which was bound for Wilmington, Delaware.
A later report in William Still’s Philadelphia Vigilance Committee reported their arrival as March 1856.
The 28-year-old Rebecca escaped with her three children Sarah Frances, Mary, and Rebecca.
Jones had been a slave of W.W.Davidson of Norfolk before her escape to Wilmington, Delaware. #31, pp.56-57

After a short reunion with her husband in Boston, she accepted an invitation to move to California in 1854 with her children. #31, p.239

Jones, S.S.
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Woodland. #15, p.103

Jones, Sandy
He was a black man in his sixties who was brought enslaved from Mississippi to a gold mine in California by his owner C.S. Perkins.
He left a wife and grown children in Mississippi.
In early 1851 he was placed in charge of Dr. John Hill.
He worked with other blacks Robert and Carter Perkins.
He worked until November 15, 1851, when Perkins released him to freedom.
He continued to work with the Perkins brothers as a free man at a mine near Ophir.
On May 31, 1852 three men, led by the sheriff of Placer County and five other whites, including C.S. Perkins, seized Jones

Joseph, Peter H.
He was a black resident of San Francisco who acquired a modest fortune by investing his ship earnings.
He speculated in stocks and real estate. #45, p.29

Keamy, Sarah
She was a black girl born in California who died on June 19, 1860 at age 1 year, 7 months.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 1, Lot 5. #50, p.7

Keaton, Harry
He was an unpopular black man who was killed by a white man at Fort John in California after a possible gambling dispute. #3, p.81

Keithley, Eunice
She was a black infant born in California who died on March 1, 1856.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 39. #50, p.7

Kelly, Judge
He was a black man from Kentucky who died on January 11, 1862 at age 45.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 1 ½, Lot 11. #50, p.7

Kelly, Louisa
She was a black woman from Louisiana who died on October 19, 1853 at age 23.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 200. #50, p.7

“Kelsey”
He was a black man from Massachusetts who mined with a black Methodist minister in 1849 at Negro Hill on the American River. #3

Kimball, Jack
He was a black miner from Fort John, near Volcano, California.
He sold his claim and left the area after he was ordered to leave the diggings by resentful white miners. #3, p.60

Kinkage, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Kinney, John
In 1862 he signed a petition for better education for black children.
Others who signed were J.B. Sanderson, Barney Fletcher, H.F. Sampson, Isaac Reed, Charles Smith, P.Anderson, J. Madison Bell, Samuel E. Burris, A.B. Smith, and R.T. Houston. #3, p.176

Kinnie, Abner
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Lake, John A.
He was a black man from New York who mined in Calaveras County with a group of Kanakas. #3, p. 64

LaMott, Frances
He was a black seaman who deserted from Bouchard’s expedition in 1845 and remained in California.
#15, p.101

Langhorn, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California with her family and her owner, Doctor Langhorn.
She purchased freedom for herself, her husband, daughter and three grandchildren by working at night.
After obtaining their freedom, they located in San Jose. #15, p.71

Langhorne, Daniel
He came enslaved to California from Virginia and he mined gold to purchase his freedom.
While mining gold on the Yuba River he had to defend his claim in court against a white man. #3, p.59

He traveled to California with his owner Dr. Langhorne of Virginia, who was also his brother.
Coming to California by ship from Panama, he practiced barbering onboard the vessel. #3, p.72

Lansing, Charles
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Colusa. #15, p.103

“Laura”
In 1848 the eighteen-year-old slave girl from North Carolina bought by Richard Pearson of Louisiana.
She was a “mulatto” who was taken to Missouri by Pearson.
In 1853 Pearson left for Utah where he married Laura and she became free according to Utah law.
In 1855 the Pearsons settled in Colusa County in California.
By the time of Pearson’s death in 1865 the couple had five children.
Laura was given her husband’s estate by a court decision. #3, p.89

“Lawrence”
He was a black man living in Sacramento when he married “Margaret”, a black woman, on May 23, 1850.
The Congregational minister Robert Deal performed the ceremony.
On their honeymoon slave owner William Marr claimed Laura as his slave and took her at gunpoint to his household.
Marr offered to release her upon the payment to him of $1,000. #3, p133; #15, p.87

Lay, Hark
Along with Green Flake and Oscar Crosby, his name appears on the monument that stands in Salt Lake City at the mouth of Emigration Canyon. #57, p.10

He sang beautifully and was kind to the children of Brigham Young.
He was enslaved to William Lay, who decided to move from Utah to San Bernardino.
William didn’t have enough money to purchase Hark’s wife from her owner. #57, p.16

He was listed as having arrived in Utah in July 1847.
He was one of 26 black slaves “en route to California” according to the 1850 U.S. census.
He was part of the Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich Expedition of 1851. #57, p.97

He was listed as 27 years old in the 1852 census for Los Angeles County. #57, p.98


18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
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