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AfriGeneas Western Frontier Forum

Post #4 - CAAP
In Response To: Post #3 - CAAP ()

California’s African American Pioneers
Developed and Submitted by Guy Washington
National Park Service
1111 Jackson Street, Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607
510-817-1390
January 3, 2005

Francis, Jacob – Hickman, Irene

Francis, Jacob
He was a black businessman who was the first president of the San Francisco Atheneum Institute.
Because of his eastern antislavery background, he was devoted to the struggle of free and enslaved blacks. #3, p.100

He was a Colored Convention leader and a subscriber to Frederick Douglass’ Paper. #3, p.188

Named by J.B.Sanderson as the temporary chair of the first Colored Convention, he conducted routine convention business until the election of William Yates as permanent chairman.
The Francis Brothers came to California together in 1851.
In 1858 Jacob moved to Victoria, British Columbia, where he unsuccessfully ran for public office. #3, p.21

He was a member of the San Francisco Atheneum Association.
He opened the Bull’s Head Saloon in Victoria, British Columbia. #27, p.4

Francis, John
He arrived in San Francisco on the same boat as Mary Ellen Pleasant.
He was employed by Pleasant in the laundry business but left to take a position as a janitor at the San Francisco Stock Exchange.
In 1869 he lived at 1000 Washington Street in San Francisco.
In 1880 he operated a boardinghouse at 920 Washington Street in San Francisco. #27, p.2

Francis, Joseph Smallwood (1854- )
Born at Coloma, California, he was the son of Robert Coleman Francis, a black pioneer.
He was a printer, president of the San Francisco Lyceum (1885), a member of the Grand Order of Odd Fellows (1889), a member of the National Academy of Music, and editor ot the Western Outlook newspaper, which in 1894 had its office at 415 Montgomery Street in San Francisco. #27, p.16

Francis, Robert Coleman
He was a black pioneer whose son Joseph Smallwood was born at Coloma, California in 1854. #27, p.16

Francisco
He was a black man who was part of Bouchard’s force or expedition. #15, p.101

“Frank”
In 1850 this 18-year-old black man was brought to California by Missouri slaveowner Calloway.
Brought to work in the mines, in 1851 Frank left slavery in the Sierra and headed for San Francisco.
After two months he was captured there by Calloway and confined to a building on Long Wharf.
An affidavit submitted to Judge Morrison on Frank’s behalf claimed he was detained against his will.
Important members of San Francisco’s black community feared Frank would be returned to slavery.
Attorney Samuel W. Holladay was hired to defend Frank in court
Judge Morrison’s decision was favorable to Frank and he was granted his freedom.
According to the judge, the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 had no bearing in this case.
Frank took his freedom in California and didn’t cross state lines in doing so.
There was no evidence from Calloway to prove Frank was his slave.
Without the right of testimony Frank couldn’t inform the court about his slave background. #3, p138, #46, p.64

He escaped from Calloway in the spring of 1851 and went to San Francisco.
He was captured by Calloway in March and confined at the Whitehall Building on Long Wharf.
Lawyers Bryne, McAlgay, Halliday and Saunders were employed to defend Frank.
Frank Pixley was hired to represent Calloway.
The Alta California on April 12, 1851 and the San Francisco Courier covered his case on March 31, 1851. #15, p.92

Frank, George
He was a black man from Massachusetts who mined in Calavaras County with a group of Mexicans. #3, p.64

Franklin, Ben
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Colusa. #15, p.103

Frazier
This was a black person who died on October 10,1850 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 39. #50, p.6

Frazier, Albert
He was a black man who married Clara Logan of Red Bluff. #15, p.96

“Freeman”
He was one of two black sawyers working in southern San Mateo County.
In 1842 Charles Brown, a runaway white sailor who took up a lumbering business, employed him. #3, p5

Freeman, Abraham
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.103

Freeman, Henry
He was a black man who was killed by an Indian at Shasta City as a result of a dispute over an Indian woman. #3, p.86

Freeman, Richard
He was a black man born in the eastern United States.
He joined the small black community in San Diego about 1847.
He bought a adobe building there and opened a business with Allen Light, another black man.
He operated a grog shop, known as the San Diego House, for four years.
The grog shop is now part of Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. #44, p.589

Freeman, Sarah Mildred
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Freeman, William F.
He was a free black man from either New York or Connecticut.
The 1860 census shows him living at the Golden Gate boardinghouse.
It was owned by William R. Mathews from Massachusetts and it catered exclusively to black seamen.
Freeman assisted with the aborted rescue of William Mathews. #3, p.155

Frisbie, Hood
He was a black steward on the ship Isaac in 1848 and at Mokelumne Hill in 1852.

Gains, Charles G.
He was a black man who was a member of the Bear Flag Party in 1846.
Other black members included John Grider, Joe McAfee and Billy Gaston. #15, p.33

Gains, John
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Gaston, Billy
He was a black man who was part of the Bear Flag Party in 1846.
Other black members of the party included John Grider, Joe McAfee and Charles G. Gains. #15, p.33

Gale, John H.
He was a black child born in California who died on August 28, 1860 at age 2 years, 7 months.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 21, Lot 100. #50, p.6

Gale, Samuel
He was a black man who owned the St. Nicholas Hotel where he employed three Chinese men in Sacramento. #3, p.109

Garcia, Maria
She was the mulatto wife of Joseph M. Martinez, who was stationed at the Presidio of San Francisco in 1790. #58, p.40

Garrison, William Henry
He was a black California miner who came from New York and played the violin. #3, p.57

He was a partner of William Miller and Daniels, both whites from Massachusetts.
He made apple pudding for a New Year’s celebration. #3, p90

Gassoway, James R.
Born in Virginia, he was the brother of John Gassoway.
By 1853 the Gassoway brothers ran a barbershop on D Street between 1st and 2nd Streets in Marysville.
The shop specialized in “cupping” and “leeching”. #3, p.112

Gassoway, John H.
Born in Virginia, he was the brother of James R. Gassoway.
By 1853 the Gassoways ran a barbershop on D Street between 1st and 2nd Streets in Marysville.
The shop specialized in “cupping” and “leeching”. #3, p.112

He was a black man on the board of trustees for the Rare, Ripe Gold and Silver Mining Company.
The mine was located in Brown’s Valley in Yuba County and the offices were located in Marysville.
The board of trustees was John H. Gassoway as president, E.P.Duplex as secretary and treasurer, G.W. Simms and J.H. Johnson.
1,200 shares represented the capital stock and 300 shares were offered for $10 each.
Although all the officers were 49ers, the company was not organized until 1868. #15, p.105

Gibbs, Mifflin Wisteria (April 17, 1823-July 11, 1915)
He was a free black man from Philadelphia who left New York for Panama on the Golden Gate.
It is probable that black crewmembers or antislavery members of the ship’s management assisted him. #3, p39

He arrived in San Francisco in 1850 with ten cents in his pocket.
He ran a bootblacking business and worked part-time for the Fremont family. #3, p.97

Gibbs was involved with antislavery activity in the East before he came to California.
He helped to establish the San Francisco Atheneum Institute.
He worked with Jacob Francis, William Newby, J.H. Townsend, James R. Starkey, W.H. Harper and E.R. Johnson. #3, p.100

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

His father died when he was eight years old.
He was a porter and bootblack at the Union Hotel in San Francisco.
He was Peter Lester’s partner in a shoe and boot firm at 636 Clay Street in San Francisco. #15, p.110

In 1858 he went to Victoria, British Columbia for the Fraser River gold rush.
He established a general merchandise house in Victoria.
In San Francisco he was one of the founders of the newspaper Mirror of the Times.
He made a determined stand against the collection of the poll tax from blacks, who couldn’t vote by law.
His goods were seized and offered for sale to pay the tax, but no one bid on the items. #15, p.113

On June 21, 1855 he acted as groomsman at the wedding of George Washington Dennis and Margaret A. Brown, daughter of James Brown. #15, p.120

He and partner Nathaniel Pointer opened the Philadelphia Store in San Francisco. #15, p.122

He was one of a group of black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Philip Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp.54-55

On March 10, 1852 a petition was sent to the state legislature concerning the right of testimony issue.
Gibbs was a leader in this fight along with Jonas Townsend and William Newby. #3, p.194

In 1866 Gibbs was elected to the Victoria City Council in British Columbia. #3, p.249

Gibbs co-owned a boot emporium with Peter Lester in San Francisco.
The firm Lester and Gibbs was located at 636 Clay Street in the Court Block.
He was an active agent in the Underground Railroad before leaving for California in 1850.
He was a public speaker on tour with Frederick Douglass.
He paid for steerage passage on the steamer Golden Gate.
In San Francisco he entered a partnership with fellow Philadelphian Nathaniel Pointer. Their clothing store was known as the Philadelphia House. #27, p.9

Gibbs, born in Philadelphia in 1828, was the son of a Methodist minister.
He shined shoes in front of San Francisco’s Union Hotel.
He later established California’s first black newspaper.
Later still he became the first black judge in United States history. #4, p.139

As a young man he became involved in Philadelphia’s Antislavery Society and the Underground Railroad.
At age 20 he was persuaded by Frederick Douglass and C.L. Remond to begin a career as an antislavery lecturer.
He sailed to California in 1850 and opened a store to sell boots and shoes from London and New York.
In 1851 he and a group of other blacks published a series of resolutions denouncing the state’s recently passed black laws.
In 1855 he began publication of Mirror of the Times, California’s first black newspaper. #4, p.140

He refused to pay San Francisco’s poll tax, which he denounced as flagrant injustice.
His store goods were put up for auction to pay the tax but there were no bidders on the goods so they were returned to Gibbs. #4, p.141

He took a prominent part in the three black state conventions called to protest discriminatory laws.
In 1858 he left California for the gold fields on the Fraser River in British Columbia.
Eventually Gibbs was appointed U.S. Consul to Madagascar. #4, p.142

In Shadow and Light: An Autobiography Gibbs relates his experiences during the 1850’s. #2

He was the son of Jonathan C. and Martha Gibbs of Philadelphia.
He was associated with Frederick Douglass and other Underground Railroad agents of the East.
He accompanied Douglass to the “Western Reserve” on lectures.
In 1850 he came to California and became a prominent businessman.
In 1851 he and other black men wrote a newspaper article for the Alta California on civil rights for blacks.
Gibbs helped publish Mirror of the Times, which ran from 1855-1862. #1

He was one of the blacks who left California for British Columbia in the late 1850s. #15, p.78

Gibbs was born in Philadelphia to Jonathan C. and Maria Gibbs. #37, p.3

Gibbs worked as an apprentice carpenter on the new brick Mother Bethel AME Church at 6th and
Lombard streets in Philadelphia. #37, p.7

In 1848 Gibbs, G.W. Gaines and J.P. Humphries purchased land and incorporated Olive Cemetery Company in West Philadelphia.
He received the contract to lay out the grounds and construct buildings in the cemetery. #37, p.9

Gibbs became an UGRR operative in Philadelphia, where he observed many cases and guided some to safety in Canada.
At a black boarding house he met Ellen and William Craft, who were introduced as freedom seekers from Georgia.
Ellen was dressed in immaculate black broadcloth and a silk beaver hat.
The Crafts settled in Boston but were compelled to flee to England after the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law in 1850.
In 1870 Gibbs met the Crafts in a Savannah, GA hotel, where they worked as hosts. #37, p.13

Gibbs was present at the antislavery office where the box containing Henry Brown was opened. #37, p.14

As a youth he visited a plantation in Maryland and he became resolved to “resistance to oppression.” #37, p.19

Blacks in Philadelphia held nightly public meetings to provide assistance to freedom seekers.
Sometimes the freedom seekers spoke about their previous conditions. #37, pp.19-20

In 1840 the schooner Amistad arrived in Philadelphia and the antislavery society held a meeting to receive the freed Africans.
Frederick Douglass introduced Cinque, who narrated their story through an interpreter.
#37, pp.29-30

After the 1849 National Antislavery Convention was held in Philadelphia, Gibbs joined Frederick
Douglass on a lecture tour in the “Western Reserve.” #37, p.32

In 1850 he sailed from New York to San Francisco as a steerage passenger.
Gibbs received some “friendly assistance” in Philadelphia to pay his fare. #37, p.38

After reaching Panama, he took passage on the steamer Golden Gate at Aspenwall.
He arrived in San Francisco in September 1850 with sixty cents in his pocket. #37, p.39

Gibbs took residence at a hotel on Kearny Street that was run by a black man. #37, p40

He worked for a short time as a carpenter, a bootblack and for John C. Fremont. #37, p.44

After saving his money for a year he became a partner in the firm of Lester and Gibbs, importers of
fine boots and shoes.
The firm was located on Clay Street and it was known as the “Emporium of fine boots and shoes, imported from Philadelphia, London and Paris.” #37, pp.44-45

Gibbs witnessed a customer assault Lester with a cane during a dispute at the shop.
Lester was unable to defend himself or seek legal redress due to the inferior status of blacks in the state. #37, p.46

In 1851 Gibbs, Jonas P. Townsend, W.H. Newby and other black men published a resolution against
the denial of rights for blacks in the Alta California. #37, p.47

In 1851 Gibbs, Townsend, Newby, G.W. Dennis and James Brown formed a company, established and
published Mirror of the Times, California’s first black newspaper. #37, p.48

In 1851, Gibbs, Jonas P. Townsend. W.H. Newby and other black men drew up a protest resolution over lack of franchise, testimony and other rights that was published in a leading newspaper. #54, p.119

Gibbs and Lester refused to pay the unjust poll tax levied on their business.
Goods were confiscated for an auction to pay the tax.
Several friends spread the word and no bids on the goods were received.
The confiscated goods were returned to their owners and the case closed. #37, p.49

In June 1858 Gibbs took passage on the steamer Republic and left for Victoria, British Columbia.
He carried a large invoice of flour, bacon, blankets picks and shovels for Canadian miners. #37, p.59

Gibbs sold his goods, ordered more and bought property with his profits. #37, p.61

300-400 blacks from California and other states settled in Victoria during this period. #37, p.63

In 1859 Gibbs returned to the U.S. and married Oberlin College graduate Maria A. Alexander of
Kentucky.
The couple visited Buffalo, Rochester, Philadelphia and New York, where they took a steamer back to
Victoria. #37, p.64

In 1869 Gibbs and his family returned to the U.S. and settled in Oberlin, OH. #37, p.108

Gibbs, Moses
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Gibson, Charles
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p. 102

Gibson, Henry
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Folsom. #15, p.103

Gibson, John
He was a black man from Philadelphia, who arrived in Monterey, California in November 1796.
He and the 10 other passengers of the vessel Otter became the first English speakers to live in California.
The group remained in Monterey for nearly a year under the charge of Governor Diego Borica.
In 1797 the Viceroy of Mexico ordered the immigrants repatriated south to San Blas in the frigate Concepcion.
During their detention in Mexico, Gibson escaped and gained passage on an outgoing ship.
He headed for Guayaquil, South America and disappeared without a trace. #58, p.41

Gillead, Jacob D.
He was a 30-year-old black man who worked as a barber on board the steamer Central America when she was lost in a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina on September 12, 1857. #48, p.257

He was last seen alive by survivors floating on one of the Central America’s life-buoys.
He declined to join George Dawson and others on their raft and was later observed to be missing.
#48, pp. 169-170

Gilman, Tom
He was a slave from Tennessee who had mining success at Dragoon Gulch in Tuolumne County.
He send gold from California to his owner in Tennessee to pay for his freedom.
He was determined to stay in California, but due to a trick, he paid for his freedom twice.
The 1850 census shows him with a group of nine free black miners, including Samuel Cornish, in Tuolumne County. #3, p.69

Godfrey, M. (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Godfrey, Nathaniel (1830- ?)
He was a black man who came to San Francisco in the late 1850s; he resided at 1016 Pacific Street.
He ran a barber shop at 546 Clay Street in San Francisco. #27, p.8

Gooch, Nancy (c1811-September 17, 1901)
She and her husband Peter were brought to California from Missouri by their owner William D. Gooch in 1849.
They gained their freedom in 1850 and Nancy did laundry, cooked and performed domestic chores for miners in Garden Valley and Kelsey.
Nancy and Peter were married in El Dorado County on January 8,1857.
The couple was married in a Methodist Episcopal ceremony by Josiah Eddy at the house of Jacob Johnson.
Louis Booker and Jacob Johnson were witnesses at the ceremony.
The couple saved and paid $1,000 to Jacob and Sara Johnson for 80 acres of farmland on March 13, 1858.
After Peter’s death in 1861, Nancy save $700 and purchased the freedom of her son, Andrew, who was still enslaved in Missouri.
Although she was enslaved in Missouri, records in the Maryland State Archives show that Nancy Ross was born free in Maryland in around 181.
She gave birth to a son named Andrew, in January 1842.
When Nancy and Peter came to California in 1849, their son was left enslaved in Missouri. #52

Gooch, Peter ( -1861)
He and his wife Nancy were brought to California from Missouri by their owner William D. Gooch in 1849.
The couple gained their freedom in 1850 and Peter worked in construction and did odd jobs in Garden Valley and Kelsey.
Peter and Nancy were married in El Dorado County on January 8, 1857.
The couple was married in a Methodist Episcopal ceremony by Josiah Eddy at the house of Jacob Johnson.
Louis Booker and Jacob Johnson were listed as witnesses on the marriage certificate.
On March 13, 1858 Peter purchased 80 acres of farmland, located near a cemetery, from Jacob and Sarah Johnson for $1,000.
Peter appeared to have be enslaved in Georgia and brought to Missouri by William. D. Gooch.
Peter and Nancy’s son Andrew was born on January 9, 1846 but the child did not accompany them to California. #52

Goodman, Adolphus
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Gordon, George W.
He was a black man who came to California from Baltimore with his wife and several of her sisters.
He opened a barbershop in the basement of the Niantic Hotel, which was owned by Mr. Fink.
One of his wife’s sisters ran a millinery store at the same location.
The hotel was located in San Francisco at Bush and Samsone Streets.
He was shot and killed at his barbershop by a white man who had been accused of stealing by his wife’s sister.
Robert Cowles, a light-skinned black man was a witness and Mr. Owens represented the family.
Cowles was not allowed to testify but Mr. Owens testimony helped lead to a murder conviction. #15, p.48

He was a black barber whose shop was in the basement of the Tehema House in San Francisco.
In October 1861 he was killed in his barber shop by a white man, Robert Schell.
Gordon was pistol whipped by Schell as he lay dying on Samsone Street.
At the resulting trial a witness was dismissed from testifying due to his 1/8 African ancestry.
Schell was convicted of only 2nd degree murder because there were no white witnesses to the attack.
Reverend Thomas Starr King officiated at the funeral services, which were held at Gordon’s home on Minna Street.
Mrs. Gordon owned a millinery shop at Second and Minna Streets in San Francisco. #3, p.208

In 1861 George was a black barber with a shop in the basement of the Niantic Hotel in San Francisco.
His shop was located at the corner of Clay and Samsone Streets.
His wife’s sister ran a millinery store at the same location.
Robert Cowles (or Cowes) was not allowed to testify against Gordon’s killer because he had 1/16 Negro blood ancestry. #27, p.11

Mifflin Gibbs wrote a letter that appeared in the Pacific Appeal on April 5, 19862.
In it he called the trial of Schell for the murder of Gordon a complete mockery of justice.
The only witness to the crime was excluded from giving testimony due to a private exam by two doctors.
They examined his hair and determined he was ineligible to testify because of 1/16 Negro blood. #54, pp. 122-23

Grace, William
He was a black man from Pennsylvania who died on October 19, 1853 at age 39.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 222. #50, p.6

Graffells, Charles
Her was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Grant
This black person died on October 24, 1850 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.6

Grant, Belle (Miss)
She was a black woman who was liberated with Miss Hestor Anderson in late 1868 or 1869 through the efforts of William Robinson of Red Bluff. #15, p.92

Grant, Thomas
He was a black man from the West Indies who died on October 28, 1864 at age 25.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 13, Lot 911/2. #50, p.6

Gray, Charles
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Gray, George
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Salinas City. #15, p.103

Green, Caro A.
He was a black man from Virginia who died on September 9, 1860 at age 45.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at TierN1/2, Lot 331. #50, p.6

Green, Lewis G.
He was a black seaman who was born in North Carolina in 1827.
He served on the Portsmouth under Captain John B. Montgomery.
He was in the navy for nine years and eight months.
He also served on Erie, Cyane, Constitution, Pennsylvania and Vermont.
He was one of five black members of the Society of Mexican Veterans.
Other black members were Peter Byers, George Diggs, Paul Rushmore and George Smith. #15, p.102

Green, Peter (Reverend)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Green, Peter
He was a former slave of Thomas Thorn when Thorn resided in Quartzburg, Mariposa County.
In August 1855 he was issued his freedom paper by a justice of the peace in Mariposa. #3, p.76

“Know all men to whom these presents shall come, that I, Thomas Thorn, of the State and County aforesaid, being the rightful owner of the Negro man, Peter Green, and entitled to his service as a slave during his life have this day released and do by these presents release him from any further service as a slave.

And I do by these presents form myself, my heirs, executors and administrators declare him, the said Peter Green, to be free to act for himself and no longer under bonds as a slave. Provided, however, that the said Peter Green shall pay to me the sum of one thousand dollars, good lawful money or work for the service, from the present time until the first day of February, A.D., one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three. Thomas Thorn
In the presence of Benjamin F. Cadell, Jr., Joseph A. Tiry, I hereby notify that the above obligation has been complied with and that Peter Green was legally discharged. Given under my hand at Quartzburg, this day of August, A.D., 1855. James Givens, Justice of the Peace” #15, p.84; #46, pp.61-62

To gain his freedom, Peter agreed to either pay $1,000 or work for Thorn until April 1, 1853.
It is not known which option he chose.
After gaining his freedom, Green became a leader in the Methodist church in Stockton. #55, p.18

Green, Shirley
Mary Ellen Pleasant employed her as a domestic at 920 Washington Street in San Francisco.
She worked with David Cloyd and John T. Valentine. #27, p.2

Gresdan, Giles
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Colusa. #15, p.103

Grider, John
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of Vallejo. #15, p.103

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He was a black man who came to California in 1841.
He was a black member of the Bear Flag Party in 1846.
Other blacks included Joe McAfee, Charles G. Gains and Billy Gaston.
He secured paint from an old barn in Sonora with which the bear and star were painted on the Bear Flag. By 1914 he was the only living member of the Bear Flag Party and he was quoted in the Western Outlook of San Francisco on October 7, 1914. #15, p.33

He provided Delilah Beasley with the names of four men who had been held in slavery near Napa. #15, p.91

Groomes, Samuel
He was the leader of a band of black musicians who began in the Bay Area in 1854. #3, p.262

He ran a barbershop with his partner George Woods on the north side of Clay Street, between Montgomery and Kearny Streets in San Francisco. #27, p.9

Gross, Mary E. (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Petaluma. #15, p.103

Groves, Ann
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Groves, Mary
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Grubbs, Albert
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

In 1860 he was a black laundryman in Sacramento.
He accused white man Jim Howard of stealing his watch.
The State Supreme Court declared Grubbs had no right of testimony. #3, p.207

Hackett, Charles (Jessie)
He was a black man who owned the Hackett House.
The Hackett House was a black-owned boardinghouse located on Third Street between K and L Streets in Sacramento. #38

Hackett, J.
He was a black man from Pennsylvania who owned and operated the Hackett House in Sacramento.
One of the most important black hotels in the area, it was located on Third Street.
In 1858 fugitive Archy Lee hid from pursuit at the hotel. #3, p.109

Haigler, George
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Haley, John
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Hall, Henry
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention selected in 1865.
The committee included F.G. Barbadoes as president, Solomon Peneton as vice-president, Henry Hall as corresponding secretary, James R. Starkey as treasurer, Shadrack Howard as recording secretary, William Yates, Henry Collins, William H. Hall, James P. Dyer, J. Madison Bell, Edward W. Parker, David W. Ruggles and John F. Meshaw. #15, p.63

Hall, R.A.
He helped establish the Franchise League on August 12, 1862.
Organizers of the league included F.G. Barbadoes, William H. Yates, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson, R.A. Hall, Peter A. Bell and J.B. Sanderson. #15, p.54

He was one of a group of black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Philip Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp.54-55

He was a member of the Publicity Committee for Equality Before the Law in 1865 and this group included William H. Yates, James R. Starkey, R.A. Hall, James P. Dyer, F.G. Barbadoes, S. Hall and Philip A. Bell. #15, p.63

Hall, S.
He was a black man who was a member of the Publicity Committee for Equality Before the Law in 1865.
The committee included William H. Yates, James R. Starkey, R.A. Hall, James P. Dyer, F.G. Barbadoes, S. Hall and Philip A. Bell. #15, p.63

Hall, Sarah Lavinia (nee Bailey)
She was a black woman who married William Henry Hall in a splendid New York wedding.
The Halls settled in Butte County, California. #46, p.115

Hall, William H.(1823?-1901)
He was a black leader from New York who went back there from California in 1851 after gaining some wealth.
He gave an address entitled “Hopes and Prospects of Colored People in California,” in which he encouraged blacks to emigrate there for opportunity. #3, p.22

He was third generation freeborn in Washington, D.C., where he served as a barber.
He moved to New York in 1825 after spending two previous years at Oberlin College in Ohio.
In New York he joined a black Masonic Order.
In 1849 he came to California, in 1851 he returned to New York and in 1854 he went back to CA.
He served as convention chairman at the 2nd Colored Convention in California in 1856.
One of 64 delegates from 17 counties, he represented Butte County, where he resided at Oroville. #3, p.222.

He was one of a group of black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Philip Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp.54-55

He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention in 1865.
The committee included F.G. Barbadoes as president, Solomon Peneton as vice-president, Henry Hall as corresponding secretary, James R. Starkey as treasurer, Shadrack Howard as recording secretary, William Yates, Henry Collins, William H. Hall, James P. Dyer, J. Madison Bell, Edward W. Parker, David W. Ruggles and John f. Meshaw. #15, p.63

He co-wrote a pamphlet entitled “Address of the State Executive Committee to the Colored People of the State of California” with Frederick Barbadoes and C.M. Wilson. #3, p.236

In 1859 he was on the board of directors of the California Savings and Land Association. Other organization officers were Henry M. Collins (President), Peter Anderson (Vice- President), E.R. Johnson (Secretary), Edward Cain, Thomas Bundy, Benjamin Harris, Thomas Taylor, and G.W. Dennis (Members of Board ). #3, p.265

He was born in Washington, D.C. in 1823 (?).
In 1861 he was the first president of the San Francisco Literary Institute.
He was a billiard saloonkeeper, a barber, and a member of the Brannan Guard.
He resided at 924 Washington Street in San Francisco. #27, p4

He was an officer of the Livingstone Institute, which was organized in 1860 as the West’s first attempt at securing a secondary school for blacks.
When the situation changed in 1863, the investors money was returned with interest.
Officers of the organization were: Barney Fletcher (President), Rev. Moore (Financial and Traveling Secretary, John A. Barber, William H. Hall, James Sampson, William Ringold, David W. Ruggles, and William A. Carter (Trustees), and Henry M. Collins and Nathaniel Gray (Treasurers). #27, p.7

He was born in Washington, D.C. in 1823 as a third generation free black.
He married Sarah Lavinia Bailey in a splendid New York wedding.
The Halls settled in Oroville, California.
William became a delegate for Butte County and a member of the Executive Committee for the Colored Convention. #46, p.115

He was a leader in New York’s black community before coming to California.
He earned money as a forty-niner in California and returned to New York in 1851. #46, p.75

He was listed in the San Francisco City Directory in 1860 as a barber.
He contributed letters and articles to California black newspapers, using pennames “Pericles” and “Uncas”. #46, p.116

He wrote the following statement about Abraham Lincoln.
“Lincoln’s growth was nowhere better illustrated than in his Gettysburg Address on November 19, 1863. In a short speech at the dedication of the battlefield as a national cemetery for the soldiers who fell there, he pointed out that the living should highly resolve that American should have ‘a new birth of freedom.” Thus did President Lincoln reveal that he had fully grasped the great truth that the war had become not a war to restore the Union as it was, but a war to reconstitute the Union on a broadened base of human liberty.” #46, p.111

Hamilton, Jessie (Reverend)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Hance, William G.
He was a free black waiter from Baltimore who arrived in Panama in 1849, where he married a Latin American woman.
He was a successful hotelkeeper and restaurant owner in Panama.
He named his hotel the “New York Hotel’ but later he changed it to the “New Orleans.” #3, p.43

Handy, J.B.
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Hare, Lige
He was a black person who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Harold, Horace H.
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of Redlands. #15, p.103

Harper, Edward
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Harper, William H.
Harper was an antislavery activist from the East.
He was one of the black owners of Harper and West Hotel located on Kearny Street in San Francisco.
This is possibly the hotel where Mifflin Gibbs stayed upon his arrival in town. #3, p.97

He helped establish the San Francisco Atheneum Institute along with other black antislavery activists from the East, including Jacob Francis (President), William H. Newby (Corresponding Secretary), J.H. Townsend, Mifflin W. Gibbs, James R. Starkey, and E.R. Johnson. #3, p.100

Harris, Benjamin
He was on the board of directors for the California Savings and Land Association. Officers of the organization were Henry M. Collins (President), Peter Anderson (Vice-President), E.R. Johnson (Secretary); William H. Hall, Edward Cain, Thomas Bundy, Benjamin Harris, Thomas Taylor, and G.W. Dennis (Board of Directors). #3, p.265

Harris, Ed
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Princeton in Colusa County. #15, p.103

Harris, Jacob
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Harris, Mary Ann
She was a young black girl who came to California from Richmond, Virginia with the family of Dr. Ross.
She worked as a nurse for four dollars a month to pay for her freedom.
The doctor and family were stationed on Alcatraz Island.
She was held virtually as a slave until stolen off the island by Aunt Lucy Evans, an elderly black woman. #15, p.91

Harris, William F.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Hart, Daniel
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Hart, William
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Hatton, Hester Sewell
She was a black woman who came to California in 1857 via ox team and she became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Hatton, Joseph Edward
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 from Norfolk, Virginia and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Hawkins, C.G.
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sutter’s Creek. #15, p.103

Hawkins, Ella (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of San Jose. #15, p.103

“Hector”
In 1848 at Monterey he deserted the naval squadron ship Southhampton, on which he served as a cook.
He returned later to Monterey with $4,000 in gold from mining. #3, p.51

Henry, Newport F.
He was a well-known employee of the business firm of the Tappan Brothers, who were antislavery movement leaders in New York.
He came to California as part of an all-black mining company that left New York in November 1849.
Also in this group was antislavery leader Jonas H. Townsend. #3, p.13

The mining company headed for Panama on the ship Hampden.
The former confidential porter of Arthur Tappan and Company resided in Tuolumne County.
He wanted to establish a school in California similar to Oberlin College in Ohio, which featured interracial, co-educational, and antislavery education. #3, p39

Hernandez, Julia
She was a black woman who came to California from Florida with her sister Mary in 1853.
They joined relatives James and Elizabeth Segee in Marysville.
They joined the Fraser River gold rush and became cooks in British Columbia for $100 a week.
The Segee’s daughter Emma was sent to join them and she was educated in a public school. #15, p.122: #58, p.89

Hernandez, Mary
She was a black woman who came to California from Florida with her sister Julia in 1853.
They joined relatives James and Elizabeth Segee in Marysville.
They joined the Fraser River gold rush and became cooks in British Columbia for $100 a week.
The Segee’s daughter Emma was sent to join them and she was educated in a public school. #15, p.122; #58, p.89

Herndon, Jefferson
He was a black man who opened a shop in Sacramento after the Civil War.
He became well to do, owning and renting fifty shops within fifteen years. #46, p.126

Hickman, Irene
She was a black girl born in California who died on June 10, 1856 at the age of 7 months.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.6


18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
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