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Post #3 - CAAP
In Response To: Post #2 - CAAP ()

California’s African American Pioneers
Developed and Submitted by Guy Washington
National Park Service
1111 Jackson Street, Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607
January 3, 2005

“Cupid” – Francis, Abner H.

He was a black miner at Georgetown who purchased his own freedom.
He died due to a riverbank cave-in while he was mining. #3, p.73

Dalton, Richard
He was originally from St. Thomas in the West Indies.
In 1847 he came west on the U.S.S. Flint.
He served as a steward on the Brother Jonathan. #45, p.14

He was an elderly enslaved black man who came to California from Alabama.
He worked in the gold fields for three years with a relative of his owner, and he later returned to California with his owner’s son.
In 1856 he returned permanently to Alabama. #3, p.68

Davenport, Joseph
He was a licensed minister from a New Orleans black Baptist church who served as acting minister of the Third Baptist Church located on Dupont Street (Grant Avenue) near Union Street in San Francisco.
Since there was no regular pastor, a member performed the role. #3, p.161

Davis, Harriet
She came to California from Philadelphia in 1854. #1

She was a black woman who helped liberate a number of slaves in San Jose.
She worked with Reverend Peter Cassey and Mrs. White to assist freedom seekers.
Among those liberated were Mr. and Mrs. William Parker. #15, p.92

She came to California in 1854 from Philadelphia via the Isthmus of Panama.
She was educated in a private school in Philadelphia and was familiar with the Underground Railroad.
Educated as an Episcopalian, she later joined Reverend Cassey’s black church in San Francisco.
Her first husband, William Smith, came to California in 1857.
She later became the first matron at the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored People at Beulah.
She became a member of the board of directors for the home. #15, p.105

Davis, Russell
He was a black man who resided in San Francisco and worked as a wagoner.
He listed $25,000 in real estate in the 1870 census. #45, p.26

Davis, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

He was a black minstrel who toured gold mining camps and taught Beula Baines soft-shoe dancing. #46, p.141

Dawson, George W.
He was a black man, born in Rochester, NY and about 35 years old when he was a passenger on the steamer Central America when she was lost in a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina on September 12, 1857. #48, p.250

He was a tall, sturdy mulatto en route to visit relatives in Rochester, NY., where he was born.
Since he was a boy he had worked as a seaman.
He was on the Crescent City when she wrecked in the Bahamas on December 7, 1855.
He had worked in California for about two years before the Central America sinking.
He had been a porter at the St. Nicholas Hotel in Oroville, CA.
He worked there for James Birch at the stagecoach stop. #48, p.48

He assisted with the construction of a raft as the Central America was sinking. #48, p.110

Illustrations showing Dawson appeared in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper on October 17, 1857.
#48, pp.164, 170, 172, 173

After the sinking of the steamer, he supported himself on three planks.
He later joined other survivors on a raft and helped cheer them. #48, p.169

He saw black barber Jacob D. Gillead floating on a life-buoy. #48, p.170

After several days on the raft, only Dawson and fireman Alexander Grant still survived.
After 5 days he and Grant joined 1st assistant engineer John Tice in one of the ship’s lifeboats. #48, p.171

On the 9th day they were rescued by the bark Mary. #48, p.172

They were the last three Central America survivors rescued. #48, p.176

When rescued he had a silver cup given to him by fellow passenger James Birch, his former employer.
Before going down with the ship, Birch asked Dawson to give the cup to his wife.
After recovering from his ordeal at sea, he presented the silver cup to Mrs. Julia Birch in Swansea, MA.
He went to the home of his friend and former Crescent City shipmate Henry Sampson, who lived at 12 Leonard Street in New York City. #48, p.174

He received a reward from Mrs. Birch for his care and diligence. #48, p.175

Dawson, Lucy (“Aunt”)
She was a 56 year-old black woman who worked as a stewardess on the Central America when the steamer was lost in a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina on September 12, 1857. #48, pp.68, 255, 257
She was a free black woman who was known as “Aunt Lucy”.
She fell into the water while being rescued by the brig Marine. #48, p.87

She fell into the water three times and injured her head while being rescued. #48, p.90

She died as a result of her injury onboard the Marine on September 18, 1857. #48, p.133

Dawson, Thomas
He was a black resident of San Francisco who worked as a ship caulker in 1870. #45, p.188

Day, C.M.
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

DeHart, Samuel
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Delvicchio, Charles A.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Red Bluff. #15, p.103

Dennis, George Washington
He came to California during the Gold Rush with his master, who was also his father. #2, p.3

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

He arrived in San Francisco on September 17, 1849 with a group of gamblers from New Orleans.
His father Green Dennis, who was a white slave trader from Mobile, Alabama, enslaved him.
Joe and Jim Johnson from Ohio and Andy McCabe were also in the party of immigrants.
While traveling along the Chagres River in Panama the gamblers won and lost George three times.
It cost $300 for George’s fare from Panama to San Francisco.
They brought a 30’X100’ tent which they opened as the Eldorado Hotel.
The hotel was located at the corner of Kearny and Washington Streets.
Two tables devoted to monte and faro were used by men during the daytime and by women at night.
Green Dennis gave George the opportunity to purchase his freedom by saving his earnings.
He served as a porter at the hotel and at the end of three months he saved $1,000 and paid for his freedom.
Joe Johnson went back east to purchase cattle and George gave him $950 to purchase his mother’s freedom.
She came to California with Johnson and she lived to be 105 years old.
George rented one of the gambling tables for $40 a day for the privilege of his mother serving hot meals. #15, pp.69-70

He worked at the Eldorado Hotel, where he saved $3,000 from his earnings over a three-month period.
He purchased his freedom and went into mining.
Later he ran the Custom House Livery Stable and also a coal yard.
He was one of the most prosperous members of the local African American community, participating in black organizations and political activities. #2, p.4

He came to California in September 1848 enslaved by Green Dennis, who was a slave trader from Mobile, Alabama.
Green granted George his freedom after he agreed to pay $1,000 and to help Green establish the El Dorado Hotel at Green and Washington Streets in San Francisco.
Dennis was active in the local civil rights movement and he participated in the Colored Conventions.
George was married to Margaret Dennis and their son Edward was the first African American policeman in San Francisco.
His daughter Charlotte Downs became matron of the children’s playground in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco during the 1900s, and she worked at the Panama Pacific Exposition in 1915. #1

Dennis was an ex-slave who operated a highly successful livery business in San Francisco, where he was also an active leader in causes relating to black people in California.
He was a Colored Convention leader and a subscriber to Frederick Douglass’ Paper. #3, p.98

He was one of the black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smisth, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Philip Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp.54-55

He was a California Colored Convention leader in 1855. #3, p.188

In 1859 Dennis was on the Board of Directors for the California Savings and Land Association.
The organization had a goal of $100,000 for land acquisition. #3, pp.265

In May 1860 a San Francisco committee was appointed to present a literary festival in order to raise funds for Dennis, who had signed a legal note to finance the legal defense fund of Archy Lee. #3, p.256-257

Dennis came to California onboard a steamer from New Orleans via Panama as the slave of Green Dennis in September 1849. #11, p.5

Green Dennis agreed to give George his freedom in return for assistance in helping a party establish the El Dorado Hotel at Washington and Kearney Streets in San Francisco.
George also agreed and paid Green $1,000 for his freedom after saving for only a short time.
He was employed at the hotel as a porter and he received a $250 a month salary.
Additionally, he saved another $1,000 to purchase freedom for his mother and she was brought the following year from the South to join her son.
Dennis bought the food concession at the El Dorado Hotel and his mother prepared home-cooked meals for gambling customers, making an average of $200 a day from the miners of 1849.
Dennis accumulated $18,000 for property located on Montgomery Street, between Jackson and Pacific Streets in San Francisco.
He sold the property after six months for $32,000.
He later purchased a block of land in San Francisco bordered by Post, O’Farrell, Hyde, and Larkin Streets.
Today, this is the location of the Mt. Zion Hospital.
Dennis built a beautiful home at 2507 Bush Street where he spent his later years with his large family.
Dennis opened San Francisco’s first livery stables at corner of Samsone and Washington Streets (later the Custom House was built on the site).
He filled a British government contract to supply 500 broken-in horses. #11, p.6

Dennis opened San Francisco’s first wood and coal yard on Broadway Street, near Montgomery Street.
In 1855 Dennis married Margaret Ann Brown, the attractive daughter of James and Charlotte Brown.
#11, p.8

He opened the Custom House Livery Stable, located at Samsone and Washington Streets in San Francisco.
In 1867 he opened the Cosmopolitan Coal and Wood Yard, located at 340 Broadway in San Francisco.
He sold fuel wholesale and retail. #45, p.30

He was vice-president of a public meeting held on May 26, 1864.
A. Waddy was president and William Burris was a second vice-president.
They issued a call for a colored convention to secure the franchise for blacks in California. #15, p.62

He was one of the blacks who left California for British Columbia in the late 1850s. #15, p.78

George was living in San Francisco with his mother and sister Cecelia at the end of the Civil War.
His request for information regarding his brothers Andrew and Richard (Dick) appeared in the Anglo-African on August 12, 1865
They were last seen in Georgia six years before; George believed they joined the Union Army. #54, p.363

Dennison, Alexander B.
In 1866 he was elected captain of the newly formed Brannan Guards by the 45 members of the militia unit.
Also selected were James Phillips, 1st Lieutenant, William H. Alexander, 2nd Lieutenant and A. Jackson, Orderly Sergeant. #58, p.24

The Guards met to drill on Wednesdays at their armory, located at 925 Pacific Street in San Francisco.
The Guards participated in the parade honoring the ratification of the 15th Amendment in 1870. #58, p.25

He was an organizer of the Brannan Guard, which operated from 1866-1874 in San Francisco.
Sam Brannan outfitted the Guard, and also organizing the group was Mathew A. Phipps. #27, p.1

Derrick, John
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Watsonville. #15, p.103

The only black families in Watsonville in 1860 were those of John Derrick and Daniel Rogers.
The two men applied for public education privileges for their children.
A white teacher was hired for their separate education. #58, p.124

DeSant, Antoine (1815-1886)
He was a Cape Verde whaleman who was also a ship captain, frigate pilot, and California gold miner.
He was a member of a seafaring family and he often commanded his ships in Hawaiian waters.
DeSant became prosperous and influential in the American merchant trade. #29, p.161

He was born in the Cape Verde Islands and he became a Yankee whaleship captain in 1830.
He came to San Francisco from Boston in 1850 onboard the bark Portland. #1 (?)

Detter, Caroline
She was a black woman who was born in Maryland and raised in Philadelphia.
She arrived in San Francisco in 1855, and in 1860 she married Thomas Detter in San Francisco.
She died in San Francisco in February and her son died in May of 1874. #49, p.xii

Detter, Charlotte
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Detter, Thomas
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

He was a delegate from Sacramento at the Second Colored Convention in Sacramento in 1856.
At the convention he made the following statement concerning the state’s testimony law.
“The law relating to our testimony in the courts of California is but a shadow. It affords no protection to our families or property. I may see the assassin plunge his dagger into the vitals of my neighbor, yet in the eyes of the law I see it not. I may overhear the robber or incendiary plotting the injury or the utter ruins of my fellow citizen, and yet in the judgment of the law I hear it not. The robbery may follow, the conflagration may do its work, and the author of evil may go unpunished because only a colored man saw the act or heard the plot. Is it not evident that the white citizen is an equal sufferer with us? When will the people of this state learn that justice to the colored man is justice to themselves?” #46, p.85

He was born into a free middle-class family around 1826 in Maryland or Washington, D.C.
His father was a stonemason and property owner who died in 1840.
The will left his house and other property to his wife Eleanor and his children Thomas and Martha.
The will also decreed that Thomas be apprenticed as a shoemaker until he reached 21 years of age.
Thomas migrated to California, arriving on the steamer John L. Stephens in 1852.
Along with Jeremiah B. Sanderson he was elected a Sacramento County delegate to the 1st Colored Citizens
of the State of California Convention. #49, p.xi

He worked as a barber, sold his patented cough syrups and hair restoratives. #49, p.x

He served on the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention for 2 or 3 years.
He next traveled extensively in Idaho and Washington Territories but returned to San Francisco often.
In 1860 he married his first wife, Caroline, in San Francisco.
He lived in mining camps and settlements throughout the Northwest Territories.
He helped found African American communities by advertising the status and prospects of new mines.
He was a correspondent for the Pacific Appeal and the Elevator.
In 1871 published his book Nellie Brown or The Jealous Wife.
It is not known where or when he died. #49, pp.xi-xii

His letter from Bannock City, Idaho Territory was published in the Pacific Appeal on August 1, 1863.
He traveled through wild and unbroken Snake Indian territory to reach the mines.
Prices were not too high and prospects or gaining wealth appeared good for him and several old acquaintances. #54, pp.210-11

He mined $100,000 worth of gold in Tuolumne County in 1848 but lost it through gambling in San Francisco. #3, p.51

He was a black miner who discovered a rich vein of gold near Tuttletown.
He sold several shares and worked on the remaining land.
After a short time he left for Sacramento with over $100,000.
He lost all the money and committed suicide. #15, p.104

Diggs, Charlotte
She was a black woman from Louisiana who died on January 2, 1857 at age 58.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 1, Lot 80. #50, p.5

Diggs, George
He was a black seaman who was born in New York.
He served on the ship Columbus under Commodore Biddle and Captain Selfridge.
He was one of five black members of the Society of Mexican Veterans.
Other black members were Peter Byers, Lewis G.Green, Paul Rushmore and George Smith. #15, p.102

Dinks, Moses
He had a miner’s cabin between Jackass Hill and Tuttletown in the Sonora area, where he found a 25-pound chunk of gold. #3, p.54

Dodson, Beverly (1845-1902)
He was a black man who was a member of the Independent Guard (1870) and a porter for the California State Assembly (1871).
In 1884 he was the president of the Central Colored Political Club.
He operated one of the two bootblack stands at 348 Bush Street in San Francisco.
The firm was named Dodson and Sanchez.
Henry Sanchez was a native of Kingston, Jamaica.
Mathew A. Phillips operated the other bootblack stand on Bush Street. #27, p.16

In the 1870s he served as captain in the Independent Guards militia unit. #58, p.26

In 1860 he was a black barber in Sacramento.
His daughter won a silver medal achievement award in school. #3, p.178

Dorsey, Harry
He was a black man who was married to former slave “Mary.” #15, p.87

Dorsey, Henry
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Dotson, Griffin
He was a black San Franciscan who was employed as a “respectable waterman.”
His thirteen-year-old son Henry was indentured to Sanford A. Taylor, a black barber. #3, p.156

Dotson, Henry
He was the thirteen-year-old son of black San Franciscan Griffin Dotson.
He was indentured to black barber Sanford A. Taylor.
Taylor took him to the lumber boomtown of Crescent City.
Taylor abandoned him there when he went to British Columbia.
Henry wandered until he arrived in Orleans Bar, where he was taken by the Wrights, a white father and son duo from Missouri.
Henry was hidden below decks on the steamer Uncle Sam by the Wrights, who intended to sell him into slavery.
A free black man named Lewis and the white ship’s baker interceded and Henry left the Wrights in Panama.
He returned by ship to San Francisco where he rejoined his family. #3, p.156

Dotson, Jacob
He was a free black man from Washington, D.C. who was employed by Senator Thomas Hart Benton’s family.
He accompanied John C. Fremont on his Western expeditions, including the second trip in 1843 when Dotson was eighteen years old and the third trip (to California) in 1846.
Dotson accompanied Fremont on an 800-mile horseback ride from Los Angeles to Monterey and back to Los Angeles.
He returned to D.C. with Fremont when the latter was arrested as a result of a conflict with General Kearney. #3, p.7

On April 23, 1861 Dotson, who was an employee of the Senate Chamber wrote Secretary of War Simon Cameron a letter calling for the use of blacks as soldiers in the Federal Army.
“Honorable Secretary:
I desire to inform you that I know of some 300 reliable colored free citizens of this city who desire to enter the services for the defense of the city. I have been three times across the rocky mountains…I can be found about the Senate (U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.) chambers as I have been employed about the premises for some years.”

Secretary Cameron wrote back to Dotson:
“In reply to your letter of the 23re instance, I have to say that the Department has no intention at presern to call into Service of the Government any colored soldiers.” #42, p.34

Dove, Alexander ( -1869)
He was a black man who was born in the West Indies in 1798 and he migrated to Boston as a youth.
After traveling the globe as a sailor, he settled in San Francisco in 1849.
He pursued a maritime career until his death. #45, p.61

Dove, Jane (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Dowden, John H.
He was a black man from Maryland who died on March 1, 1858 at age 44.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier3, Lot 233. #50, p.5

He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of North San Joaquin. #15, p.103

Duff, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Mariposa. #15, p.103

He mined at Mariposa with a German boy named Fritz.
Duff found a chunk of gold-bearing quartz which weighed 193 pounds and was valued at $5,000-$10,000. #3, p.54

He was a black man who accompanied John C. Fremont on this trip to California in 1843.
A picture shown to Delilah Beasley showed him to be a light-skinned black man “with only a dash of Negro blood.”
He died at the age of ninety-three. #15, p.33

Duff, Thomas
He wrote the following letter that was published in Mirror of The Times.
“The necessity of establishing schools for the education of our youth would seem too evident to need urging. And yet there is scarcely a village or town in California that possesses a common school for the education of Colored children…Without schools for the education of those who are to compose the next generation of actors on this great stage, we cannot expect our condition to be permanently improved—for it is upon the present youth of the country that we must make impressions that will perfect what we can only hope to commence…” Thomas Duff, Maripose December 8, 1851. #46, p.91

Duffy, Richard
He was a black man from Maryland who died on January 16, 1854 at age 50.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 16. #50, p.5

Dunlop, Isaac
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Dunlop, Thomas
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Duplex, Edward P. (1830- )
He was one of the most important black leaders in California outside of San Francisco in the 1850s.
He was born in Connecticut.
In Marysville he owned the Metropolitan Shaving Saloon on D Street, where he employed other barbers.
During the California State Fair held in Marysville in 1858, he had seven barbers to serve customers. #3, p.112

Correspondence from him regularly appeared in Frederick Douglass’ Paper. Other contributors included James R. Starkey, William H. Newby and Abner H. Francis. #3, 189

Born in New Haven, Connecticut, he was a Colored Convention leader in California.
In 1859 the 29-year-old went to New Haven and returned to California with his mother, Adaline Duplex.
She resumed her trade as a dressmaker and she lived with Duplex’s young family.
In 1888 he became the first black mayor of a California city, when the board of trustees in Wheatland elected him to office. #3, p.259

He was one of the black owners of the Sweet Vengeance Mine in Brown’s Valley.
Other company members who worked the claim were Gabriel Simms, Fritz James Vosburg, Abraham Freeman Holland, James Cousins and M. McGowan. #15, p.104

He was a black man on the board of trustees for the Rare, Ripe Gold and Silver Mining Company.
The mine was located in Brown’s Valley in Yuba County and the offices were located in Marysville.
Although the officers were all 49ers, the company was not organized until 1868.
The board of trustees included John H. Gassoway as president, E.P. Duplex as secretary and treasurer, G.W. Simms and J.H. Johnson.
1,200 shares represented the capitol stock and 300 shares were offered for sale at $10 each. #15, p.105

Dupugh, Edward
In 1851 he stabbed himself fatally after he was not allowed to have a drink in a saloon. #3, p.107

Dyer, James A.
In 1851 this New Bedford black man founded the New England Soap Factory, one of the first of its kind in San Francisco.
In 1856 he sold the factory to the white Swains, who were an antislavery family from New England.
James worked for the Swains as a soap maker until 1859.
In 1859 Dyer opened his own soap factory, which was also called the New England Soap Factory. #3, p.98

Upon his arrival in California he became a subscriber to Frederick Douglass’ Paper.
He was a Colored Convention leader. #3, p.188

He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention selected in 1865.
The committee included F.G. Barbadoes as president, Solomon Peneton as vice-president, Henry Hall as corresponding secretary, James R. Starkey as treasurer, Shadrack Howard as recording secretary, William Yates, Henry Collins, Edward W. Parker, David W. Ruggles and John F. Meshaw.
The Publicity Committee for Equality Before the Law included William H. Yates, James R. Starkey, R.A. Hall, James P. Dyer, F.G. Barbadoes, S. Hall and Philip A. Bell. #15, p.63

Dyer, John P.
He was a black man who maintained a soap-making establishment and a tallow factory in San Francisco.
He ran these businesses until his death in 1869. #45, p.45

Easton, Charles Frederick
He was a black man who came to California from New York in 1850 by way of Cape Horn.
In San Francisco he opened a barbershop with 49er Jerry Bowers.
He became a pioneer of El Cajon Valley.

Edmondson, William
He was a black man from New York who died on April 28, 1852 at age 28.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 246. #50, p.5

Edwards, Andrew
He was a black man from Pennsylvania who died on December 17, 1861 at age 27.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 1, Lot 28. #50, p.5

Edwards, John
In 1846 he was serving a three-year hard labor sentence in Monterey, CA.
John escaped from the jail and fled into the countryside near Salinas.
He was wounded and left to die by his pursuers. #3, p.9

He was a black miner who returned to North Carolina by himself, while his trusting owner stayed in California. #3, p.69

Elliott, Samuel
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Ellis, Robert
He was a black barber in San Francisco.
In October 1851 he mistakenly assumed a black man being rushed onboard a ship was a slave.
He attempted rescue, but he was incorrect about the situation.
A court case dismissed all parties. #3, p137

Embers, Grief ( c. 1812 –October 10, 1873)
He was enslaved to Southern Mormon William Crosby. #57, p.8

He was part of the “Mississippi Company” of Mormons, who arrived in Utah in October 1848. #57, p.10

He and his brother Toby were enslaved to Bishop Crosby.
The brothers played roles in the building of San Bernardino. #57, p.25

His last name had been acquired from a previous owner.
He was born in 1812 or 1813 and listed his birth place as Indiana.
After the Mormons left him in San Bernardino he used the name Embers. #57, p.26

In early San Bernardino, he acted as a bugler, playing a six-foot long horn for various functions. #57, p.27

He played his horn at the first Independence Day celebration in San Bernardino in 1852. #57, p.29

He was listed in the 1860 census as a property owner in San Bernardino.
By the time of his death in 1873, he owned considerable property near downtown San Bernardino.. #57, p.36

He arrived in Utah in October 1848.
He was one of 26 black slaves “en route to California” according to the 1850 U.S. census.
He was part of the Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich Expedition of 1851.
He was listed as Grief Crosby, owned by William Crosby. #57, p.97

He was listed as 27 years old in the 1852 census for Los Angeles County. #57, p.98

Embers, Toby
He and his brother Grief were enslaved to Bishop Crosby.
They both played roles in the building of San Bernardino. #57, p.25

He was one of 26 black slaves “en route to California” according to the 1850 U.S. census. #57, p.97

Emmerson, Lucy
She was a black child born in California who died on May 30, 1857 at age 4 ½ .
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 38. #50, p.5

Emory, Robert
He was a black man from Pennsylvania who died on February 24, 1853 at age 27.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 5, Lot 124. #50, p.5

Emory, Simon
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Evans, Lucy (“Aunt”)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

She was an elderly black woman who assisted Mary Ann Harris’s escape to freedom from Alcatraz Island. #15, p.91

Farrell, William B. (1825-1863)
He was born in St. Croix, Virgin Islands.

In San Francisco he operated a clothes cleaning business located at 105 Merchant Street with Charles Satchell.
He also worked as a cooper. #27, p.5

Ferguson, Alex
He was a black man who served on a special committee selected by the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention.
The Executive Committee met in San Francisco during 1863 after the passage of the Testimony Bill.
Solomon Peneton recommended the appointment of this committee at a Scott Street church meeting.
C. Wilson moved that a committee of three would be sufficient.
Elected were T.M.D. Ward as president, Peter Anderson as secretary, Alex Ferguson, J.B. Sanderson, F.G. Barbadoes, Shadrack Howard and William Yates. #15, p.60

Fines, James
He was a black man from Missouri who died on February 1, 1852 at age 40.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.6

Finley, Henry
He was a black man from Illinois who joined a white company from Ohio.
Henry worked his way to California as part of the company headed by Major John Love of Ohio. #3, p26

He was a black man from Pennsylvania who came to Santa Barbara in 1829 on the steamer Santa Rosa.
In Los Angeles he was a 35-year-old farmer without religion but of good conduct.
Coronel, for whom he worked in 1846-47, mentions him.
Foster possibly mentions him in 1849.
He is possibly the same Fisar who was a member of the California Battalion in 1846.
Indians near Los Angeles attacked them in 1847 and he was court-martialed by Fremont in 1847.
1847 also saw hi m at Sutter’s Fort as a quicksilver miner. #15, p.101

Fisher, Archibald
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of North San Joaquin. #15, p.103

Fisher, John (“Jack”)
He was a black man who was a horseshoe specialist for Elias J. “Lucky” Baldwin, a millionaire who raced prize horses. #45, p.16

Flake-Rowan, Mrs. Elizabeth (Lizzie)
Elizabeth was a black woman who came to California and became a pioneer of San Bernardino. #15, p.103

She was a former slave who took the name of her owner’s family.
Along with 25 other blacks, she came to San Bernardino, California in 1851. #57, p.1

A ca. 1885 portrait photograph of Elizabeth Flake Rowan can be found in Heritage Tales. #57, p.2

She was born in the 1830s on a plantation in Mason County, North Carolina.
Taken from her parents at age four, she was given to James and Agnes Flake as a wedding gift.
She was raised as the personal slave of Agnes Flake.
The Flakes moved to Mississippi with their slaves Elizabeth and Green.
After becoming Mormons, the couple and their two slaves moved to Navoo, Illinois, where they spent the winter of 1846-1847 with other Mormons.
Other Southerners also brought their slaves, including Oscar, Grief, Aunt Hanna and Lawrence. #57, p.8

Lizzie and the Flake children herded loose cattle on the overland journey by wagon to Utah.
The “Mississippi Company” arrived in the valley of the Great Salt Lake in October, 1848. #57, p.10

After the accidental death of James Flake in California in 1850, Agnes became more dependent on Lizzie.
Green Flake was sent to live with another Mormon man. #57, p.13

The widowed Agnes Flake decided to go to San Bernardino with her children and Lizzie. #57, p.16

On March 14, 1851 500 people and 150 wagons left Salt Lake City for San Bernardino, California.
Lizzie and 25 other blacks were included in the three companies on their difficult three month journey.
#57, p.23

On the trip, she and the two Flake sons drove a yoke of oxen behind the wagon driven by Agnes. #57, p.24

She worked hard, helping Agnes and her family to build a new home inside Fort San Bernardino. #57, p.25

The 1852 Los Angeles census showed 20 of the original 26 black settlers of San Bernardino, but it failed to list Lizzie Flake. #57, p.28

Agnes Flake died on January 5, 1855 with Lizzie still serving her loyally.
After her death, her two sons and daughter remained in Lizzie’s care for several months.
The 1860 census lists Lizzie as a laundress in San Bernardino. #57, p.33

.When the three Flake children returned to Utah in 1857 they left Lizzie behind. #57, pp.35-36

According to records, Lizzie was enslaved to Agnes L Flake and arrived in Utah in October 1848.
Lizzie’s name appears on the list of 26 blacks en route to California according to the 1850 U.S. census.
Her name appears on the list of black slaves taken to San Bernardino along with the Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich Expedition of 1851. #57, p.97

Fletcher, Barney (Reverend) (1814?-1884)
He gained his freedom in Maryland.
He went to Sacramento where he earned money and purchased freedom for his wife and children.
Barney organized a black Methodist church in Sacramento. #3, p.21

By 1851 Barney and his brother Charles Fletcher had organized church services in Sacramento. #3, p.108

In 1854 Barney helped to organize St. Cyprian’s AME Church in San Francisco.
By 1856 St. Cyprian’s returned to the ministry of Reverend Fletcher. #3, p.160

Along with Collins, Anderson, Sanderson, and Ruggles, he was a member of the committee on black public schools in San Francisco. #3, p.173

He signed the 1862 petition for better education for black children. The signers were J.B. Sanderson, Barney Fletcher, H.F. Sampson, Isaac Reed, John Kinney, Charles Smith, P. Anderson, J. Madison Bell, Samuel E. Burris, A.B. Smith, and R.T. Houston. #3, p.176

On September 2, 1856 the financial committee for Mirror of the Times newspaper was established.
Members were Nathan Pointer, W.D. Moses, Charles Mitchison, Reverend Barney Fletcher, Charles B. Smith, F. Spotts, and Henry F. Sampson. #3, p.220

He was an officer of the Livingstone Institute, which was organized in 1860 as the West’s first attempt at a secondary school for black children. Money collected was returned to investors with interest in 1863 due to a changed law.
The officers were Barney Fletcher (Preseident), Reverend Moore (Financial and Traveling Secretary), James A. Barber, William Hall, James Sampson, William Ringold, David T. Ruggles, and William H. Carter (Trustees), and Henry M. Collins and Nathaniel Gray (Treasurers). #27, p7

He was born in Maryland and worked as a janitor at the Merchant Exchange Building in San Francisco at 465 California Street.
In 1856 he served as pastor at St. Cyprian AME Church, which had only 22 members.
The church was the forerunner of Bethel AME Church, which today is located at 970 Laguna Street.
He purchased a carpenter shop on Scott Street and converted it for worship purposes.
In 1850 Fletcher was a founder of the first AME church in the West-St. Andrew’s in Sacramento.
He belonged to many important organizations including three benevolent societies, a standing school committee, the San Francisco Literary Institute, the Prince Hall Grand Lodge and the Hannibal Lodge Number 1 (Freemasons).
In the 1870s he worked as a messenger at the U.S. Customs House in San Francisco.
He served as a U.S. Circuit Court Juror. #27, p.14

He worked as a porter for J.W. Tucker, a jeweler whose business was located at 505 Montgomery Street in San Francisco. #27, p.17

He gained his freedom in Maryland and came to Sacramento.
He earned enough money through mining to purchase freedom for his wife and children.
He founded the first black Methodist church in Sacramento. #46, p.69

Fletcher, Charles
He was the brother of Barney Fletcher and both were originally from Baltimore.
In 1851 Charles and Barney organized a Methodist Church in Sacramento. #3, p.108

Fletcher, George
He was born into slavery in Maryland along with his brother Barney Fletcher.
He organized an AME group in Sacramento between 1850 and 1852. It was the state’s first separate black religious organization. #3, p.159

Flowers, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who, at age four, came to California during pioneer days from Niles, Michigan.
She later became a resident at the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored People at Beulah. #15, p.106

Flowers, J.W. (Reverend)
He was the pastor of Siloam Baptist Church in Sacramento in 1859. #3, p163

Flowers, Jonathan M.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

He was a barber and whitewasher who in 1862 lived in a boardinghouse run by Mrs. James Johnson at 918 Washington Street (at Stone Street) in San Francisco.
Flowers correspondence is located at the Oregon Historical Society in Portland. #27, p.3

Floyd, James
Members of the 4th Colored Convention held in October 1865 included “Peter” Bell and Andrew Bristol of San Francisco, James Floyd, A.J. White, G.A. Smith, S.J. Marshal, Peter Cassey and Mrs. William A. Smith, all of San Jose. #15, p.63

Ford, Barney
Born a slave in South Carolina, he escaped to Chicago in his early 20s.
In 185 he and his wife decided to join the gold rush to California.
They set out on the Nicaragua route and when Barney became ill in Greytown, they opened a restaurant/hotel.
In the mid-1850s he returned to Chicago with nearly $5,000 saved. #3, p.44

Ford, Louis
He was a black man who died on December 12, 1850 at age 30.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 7, Lot 161. #50, p.6

Ford, Macklin
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Ford, William
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Folsom. #15, p.103

Foreman, William
He was a black miner from Boston who worked in a mixed race mining company at Hawkins Bar on the Tuolumne River.
The group had 3 whites, including William Miller, and 5 blacks.
In 1849 they built a dam but were run off the site by armed white miners. #3, p.56

Forney, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer in Stockton. #15, p.103

Fountain, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Fox, Henry
He was a free black man from Kentucky who dug gold with 2 Mexicans and 1 Frenchman. #3, p.64

Frances, James
He was a black man from San Francisco who worked for Russel, Majors and Waddell on the Pony Express.
He had charge of the horses at the end of the trail at Summit. #15, p.48

Frances, R.C.
This black person came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Santa Cruz. #15, p.103

Francis, Abner H.
He was a free black man from Buffalo, New York who had a long career there in antislavery activity.
He came to California by the Panama route in 1851. #3, p.40

He was a leader of the Colored Convention.
He was a subscriber to Frederick Douglass’ Paper and a personal friend of Douglass.
Correspondence from him appeared in the newspaper. #3, p.188

He came to California with his brother Jacob in 1851.
Later he went to Portland, Oregon where he went into merchandising. #3, p.43

He wrote a series of articles for Frederick Douglass’ Paper.
He described his impression of ship travel to California.
He revealed mixed feelings about the people of Central America, stating “I would not want to take up my abode among them for all that they possess, although it was gratifying to see colored men in authority.” #46, p.60

He was a native of New Jersey who wrote a letter to Frederick Douglass from the Oregon Territory.
The letter was published in Frederick Douglass’ Paper, November 13, 1851.
He and his brother opened a business in Oregon, but after three weeks, his brother was arrested under a law forbidding blacks from settling in the territory.
Although the law called for him to leave within thirty days, a justice of the peace gave him six months to relocate. #54, p.118

18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
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