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AfriGeneas Western Frontier Forum

Post #2 - CAAP
In Response To: Post #1 - CAAP ()

California’s African American Pioneers
Developed and Submitted by Guy Washington
National Park Service
1111 Jackson Street, Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607
510-817-1390
January 3, 2005

Brown, James - Cuney, Samuel E.

Brown, James
He was a black man originally from Kentucky who owned a cattle ranch in Temecula township, San Diego County, where he employed another black man as a ranch hand. #3, p.123

Brown, Margaret Ann
She was the daughter of James and Margaret Brown and the sister of Charlotte Brown.
In 1855 she married George Washington Dennis. #11, p.8

Brown, Moses
He was a black man whose freedom was purchased by family member Samuel Shelton. #15, p.72

Brown, P.
Early in 1852 he was working in Cosumnes diggings and he wrote a letter to his wife Alley Brown, who was living in St. Genevieve City, Missouri. He told of the opportunity to make money in CA. #3, p.23

Brown, Richard
He was a black man who owned a hairdressing and bath saloon located at 215 Samsone Street in San Francisco, where he employed Horace Bentley. #27, p 12

Brown, Richard
He was a black man from Missouri who died on December 28, 1860 at age 35.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 27, Lot 62. #50, p.4

Brown, Samuel
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Brown, W.R.
This black person came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Brown, William
Along with Thomas A Pierre, he was co-owner of Clothing Emporium, located on Merchant Street, under the Union Hotel, in San Francisco.. #27, p.7

Brown, William
He was a black seaman who came to California in 1849 and opened a laundry in Sacramento.
His daughter, Mrs. Theresa M. Thompson, came to California from Camden, New Jersey. #15, p.106

Buchanan, James
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Buckner, John
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of Mud Springs. #15, p.103

Buler, A.H.
He was a black man who worked as a tailor.
He was a man from the West Indies who in 1857, along with partner Henry S. Morris, co-owned a clothes renovating, cleaning business located under the Union Hotel on Merchant Street in San Francisco. #27, p.7

Buller, Vardaman
He was a free black man from Kentucky who was hired to drive a team to California for William Gill, a white man also from Kentucky. #3, p.26

Bulmer, Isaac
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Bundy, Thomas
He was on the Board of Directors for the California Savings and Land Association.
Other officers were Henry M. Collins (President), Peter Anderson (Vice President), E.R. Johnson (Secretary), William H. Hall, Thomas Bundy, Edward Cain, Benjamin Harris, Thomas Taylor, and G.W. Dennis (Board of Directors). #3, p.265

Burgess, Rufus M.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Coloma. #15, p.103

Burney, (Doctor)
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of San Diego. #15, p.103

Burns, William
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Burris, Eliza Ann
She was a black woman who died on March 16, 1862 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 1, Lot 44. #50, p.4

Burris, James
He was a black man from Delaware who died on March 16, 1862 at age 31.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier1, Lot 43. #50, p.4

Burris, Samuel D.
He was a free man and a native of Delaware.
He was an UGRR operative on the route leading down into Maryland via John Hunn’s place.
In order to distance himself from slavery he moved with his family to Philadelphia. #47, p.772

According to William Still, he was an active UGRR operative before 1851.
He went down South occasionally to assist some of his friends escape to freedom.
He was eventually caught and made a prisoner in the Dover, Delaware jail.
From his jail cell he kept up a constant correspondence with his friends in Delaware and Pennsylvania.
UGRR operatives John Hunn and Thomas Garrett remained faithful to him.
After several months in prison, he was given a trial and sentenced to serve seven years as a slave.
An illustration of Burris dressed in formal wear is found in Still’s book. #47, p.773

The Burris case was of great interest to Mr. McKim and the Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania Antislavery Society.
Although this group had not encouraged his activities, it decided to raise money to purchase his freedom.
Isaac S. Flint, an abolitionist from Wilmington, Delaware was selected to secretly purchase Burris.
Flint, under an assumed name, was successful as the highest bidder at the Burris auction.
Once he had the bill of sale in hand, Flint whispered his true purpose in the ear of Burris. #47, p.774

Burris rejoined his family and friends in Philadelphia and never ventured South again.
After remaining in Philadelphia for a year or two, he went to California around 1852 to find better work.
After becoming situated, he sent for his family to join him.
He always kept posted on the subject of the UGRR and antislavery questions.
After the Civil War, he raised money in the colored churches of San Francisco for the relief of contrabands in Washington, D.C.
He died in San Francisco in 1868 at the approximate age of 60. #47, p.775

He was a black man who left Philadelphia for California in 1851.
He was a free black man from Delaware who was involved in the Underground Railroad.
He moved to Philadelphia with his family and took up farming.
He worked with the Underground Railroad, returning to Delaware several times and aided freedom seekers.
Authorities caught him while he was helping runaways.
He was ordered by the court into slavery for seven years and sold on the auction block at Dover.
Mr. Flint, a Quaker abolitionist, purchased him with funds provided by the Underground Railroad.
He returned to Philadelphia without money or his farm.
He left with his family for San Francisco, where he hoped to improve their economic condition.
During the Civil War he took a leadership role in San Francisco, raising funds of the relief of runaways sheltering in Philadelphia.
There is no other record of his involvement in antislavery activities while in San Francisco. #3, pp.20-21

Burris was an UGRR operative in Queen Annes County, Maryland.
He traveled throughout the Eastern Shore leading freedom seekers to rescuer John Hunn in Delaware.
In 1845 he brought the Hawkins family from Queen Annes County to Hunn’s home at Cantwell Bridge.
He was arrested for this action and later rescued by Hunn and Thomas Garrett. #53, p.79

He was an operative in Thomas Garrett’s Wilmington network, which included free blacks Evan Lewis, George Wilmer, Joseph Hamilton, Severn Johnson and Abraham Shadd. #53, p.54

He was a native of Delaware and a free man who worked closely with John Hunn to assist freedom seekers.
For the purpose of safety he moved with his family to Philadelphia, where he worked with a local antislavery society.
Burris was captured by slaveholders and held in the Dover, Delaware jail.
He was convicted of aiding a freedom seeker and sentenced to be sold on the auction block for a period of seven years servitude.
John Hunn, Thomas Garrett and James M. McKim of the executive committee of the Pennsylvania Antislavery Society raised money to purchase Burris at his auction.
Isaac S. Flint, an abolitionist from Wilmington, assumed a false name and purchased Burris at the auction.
Burris rejoined his family in Philadelphia, and in 1852 he moved his family to California.
In California he saw to the care of destitute former slaves who had moved there. #53, p.41

In 1862 he signed petition in San Francisco for better education for black children.
Others who signed were J.B. Sanderson, Barney Fletcher, H.F. Sampson, Isaac Reed, John Kinney, Charles Smith, P. Anderson, J. Madison Bell, A.B. Smith, and R.T. Houston. #3, p.176

He came to California with his family to mine gold and settled in what is today the town of Strawberry.
He panned for gold along the Stanislaus River.
Within a short period of time he earned enough money to move his family to San Francisco. #46, p.70

Burris, William
He was a black man who was vice-president of a public meeting held on May 26, 1864.
A.Waddy was president and George W. Dennis was a second vice-president.
They issued a call for a colored convention to secure the franchise for blacks in California. #15, p.62

Burris, William
He was a black man from Pennsylvania who died on October 22, 1856 at age 19.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.4

Burrows, Amy (Miss)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Burrows, John
He was a black man who came to California in 1855 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

“Bustamente”
He was a black man who cooked for William T. Sherman and his messmates in Monterey in 1848.
He got “gold fever” and left for the gold fields. #20, p.67

Butler, Alex
He was a black man from Washington, D.C. who died on November 9, 1855 at age 58.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 93. #50, p.4

Butler, Francis
He was a black man from Maryland who died on October 18, 1854 at age 37.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 21, Lot 82. #50, p.4

Byers, Peter
He was a black man born in Henrico County, Virginia in 1810.
He served with Colonel Jack Hayes, General Zachary Taylor and Captain John Long in the Mexican War.
He was at the Battle of Monterey and he was one of five members of the Society of Mexican Veterans.
The other members were George Diggs, Lewis G. Green, Paul Rushmore and George Smith. #15, p.102

Cady, H.
This person came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Caesar, Julius
He was a black man who was offered for sale in an 1851 Sacramento newspaper advertisement.
It is not known if the $100 price was met by abolitionists, as requested by the owner. #55, p.16

Cain, Edward
In 1859 he was on the board of directors for the California Savings and Land Association, along with Henry M. Collins (President), Peter Anderson (Vice-President), E.R. Johnson (Secretary), William H. Hall, Thomas Bundy, Benjamin Harris, Thomas Taylor, and G.W. Dennis (Board Members). #3, p.265

“Calaveras Bill”
He was a black man murdered by Edward Hoyt at Poverty Bar.
Hoyt was a white man and Constable Smith of Campo Seco delivered him to the sheriff. #3, p.84

“Caldwell”
In 1860 he was a hotel steward in Sacramento.
His daughter won a silver medal achievement award in school. #3, p.178

Caldwell, John
He was a black American sailor who deserted frigate California in Monterey.
He had served on the vessel as ship’s cook.
In 1832 he was harbored at the San Jose home of Justice of the Peace John Burton, who was a former ship captain from Massachusetts. #3, p.4

Callis, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Downieville.
She was the wife of Albert Callis. #15, p.103

Callis, Albert
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Downieville. #15, p.103

He prospected for gold on the upper reaches of the Yuba River as part of an interracial mining company, which included white youths Duvarney and Downie and five blacks, among them Callis and Wilkins.
Callis was thought by Downie to be a runaway slave originally from Virginia.
He became a permanent resident of Downieville, where he was a barber and a married man with children. #3, p.58

Callis, Catherine (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

Camero, Manuel
He was a mulatto and one of the Spaniards who founded the pueblo of Los Angeles on September 4, 1781. #60, p.40

Campbell, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Downieville. #15, p.103

Campbell, Basil
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Cash Creek. #15, p.103

He worked for ten years to pay for his freedom after coming to California with his owner.
After gaining his freedom he lived in Woodland, where he was a rancher.
When he died he left property valued at $80,000. #15, p.71

Campbell, Mary Ann
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Campbell, R.
This black person came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Watsonville. #15, p.103

Campbell, Virgil (Reverend)
He was the black minister of Ebenezer AME Church in Stockton during the 1850s.
Founded in 1852, the church was located on Commerce Street, near La Fayette. #3, p.163

Cannon, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California and became a pioneer of Oroville. #15, p.103

“Captain William”
He was a free black man in the transportation business in Panama.
In 1851 he was captain of the launch Gorgona and he hired four natives to row the craft on the Chagres River.
He was a former sailor in the U.S. Navy for three years. #3, p.43

Carlisle, William E.
He was a black man who acquired a modest fortune through speculation in stocks or real estate.
He made his money on ships and invested it wisely. #45, p.29

Carmack, Daniel
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Carr, George Allen
He was a black child born in California who died on June 14, 1853 at age 15 months.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 15, Lot 91. #50, p.5

Carter (Mr.)
He was one of the blacks from California who left for British Columbia in the late 1850s. #15, p.78

Carter, Dennis
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.103

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Carter, Gilbert
He came to California from New Bedford, Massachusetts in order to earn enough money to purchase his children who were held in slavery.
A report in a New Bedford newspaper claimed he was murdered in Marysville for his money. #3, p. 19

He was a freedom seeker who settled in New Bedford and in 1849 he traveled to California onboard the ship America.
In 1854 he was reported to be saving money to purchase his children being held in slavery.
Undocumented source

Carter, Hiram
He was a black man from Massachusetts who died on January 16, 1858 at age 39.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 27, Lot 33. #50, p.5

Carter, James C.
He was a black man from Pennsylvania who died on January 1, 1857 at age 43.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 13. #50, p.5

Carter, James
He was a black man from Sacramento who signed a call for a colored convention to be held in Sacramento on November 20, 1855.
Other signers included Peter Anderson, J.H. Townsend, W.H. Newby and David Ruggles. #3, p.212

He was one of a committee who signed a petition on September 27, 1855 calling for a Colored Convention.
The group included James Carter of Sacramento, J.H. Townsend, Peter Anderson, William H. Newby, D.W. Ruggles and J.B. Sanderson, all from San Francisco. #15, p55

Carter, William H.
He was an officer of the Livingstone Institute, which was organized in 1860 as the West’s first attempt at establishing a secondary school for black children.
In 1863 money raised was returned to the investors with interest due to a law change.
Organization officers were Barney Fletcher (President), Reverend Moore (Financial and Traveling Secretary), John A. Barber, William Hall, James Sampson, William Ringold David W. Ruggles, and William H. Carter (Trustees), and Henry M. Collins and Nathaniel Gray (Treasurers). #27, p.7

Cary, Isaac
He was a black barber in San Francisco whose shop was located at 640 Clay Street in 1869.
He had earlier been a partner of Charles H. Mercier on Merchant Street. #27, p.11

By 1875 he had moved his barbershop from the Clay Street location to 404 Montgomery Street, where he employed Cornelius W. Wilson. #27, p.16

Cassey, Peter William (1832?- )
He was a black man who was a teacher at a school for black children in San Jose in 1866.
He was also an ordained deacon in the Episcopal Church. #3, p.166

With the assistance of Mrs. Harriet Davis and Mrs. White, he helped free a number of enslaved blacks in San Jose.
Among those liberated were Mr. and Mrs. William Parker. #15, p.92

He was one of the black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Peter Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp.54-55

He organized the Phoenixonia Institute as a school in San Jose on December 22, 1863.
The school was established for the religious, moral and political improvement of blacks in the state.
He was a member of the convention called for a colored convention, which was held in October 1865.
Members of this 4th Colored Convention included Peter Bell and Andrew Bristol of San Francisco, James Floyd, A.J. White, G.A. Smith, S.J. Marshal, Reverend Cassey and Mrs. William A. Smith of San Jose. #15, p.63

In 1859 Cassey was co-owner of a shaving saloon with Charles H. Mercier.
It was located in the basement of the Union Hotel at 642 Merchant Street in San Francisco.
He was also rector of the Christ Episcopal Mission in San Francisco and he traveled there once a month from his home in San Jose.
In 1864 he opened a private boarding school for parishioners’ children in San Jose at what was originally known as the Phoenixonian Institute and later known as St. Philips Home and School.
In 1882 he moved to North Carolina where he became a bishop. #27, pp.5-7

Castillo, Martin
He was a black man from Alabama who died on January 7, 1857 at age 35.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 6, Lot 108. #50, p.5

Caulwell, Isaac
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Cecil, Thomas
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Salinas City. #15, p.103

Chandler, Edward
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Petaluma. #15, p.103

Chandler, Robert
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

“Charles”
He was a former slave who was living in Sacramento in 1850, where white slave owner Lindall Hayes, who sought a judgement from Judge Thomas in a court case, claimed him.
The judge cited Mexican law to verify Charles’ freedom, but Hayes attempted to capture Charles using force.
Another court case resulted with Justice Sackett presiding and his decision freed Charles, who had a legal right to resist a return to slavery.
Charles’ legal team included Joseph W. Winans, and Joseph C. Zabriskie #3, p.135; #15, p.92; #46, p.63

“Charley”
He was a free black man who was on board the Central America when she was lost in a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina on September 12, 1857.
He was traveling with Joseph McDonald Bassford of New York. #48, p.55

He was listed as a steerage passenger. #48, p.253

“Charley”
He was a black man who was on board the Central American when she was lost in a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina on September 12, 1857.
He was the “servant” of Frank A. Jones of Kentucky. #48, p.55

Chester, George A.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Santa Cruz. #15, p.103

Chew, Horatio M.
He was a black man from Massachusetts who died on November 29, 1855 at age 27.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 2, Lot 418. #50, p.5

Childress, Samuel
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Chico in Butte County. #15, p.103

Christopher, Arthur
He came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Christopher, Charles
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Red Bluff. #15, p.103

Christopher, Barbara N. (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Christopher, Nathaniel
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer in Sacramento. #15, p.102

Churchill, James
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Churchill, Mary (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

“Clanpa”
She was an enslaved black women brought to California from Arkansas by her owner James R. Holman in 1850.
She gained freedom for herself and her two children by agreeing to work for Holman for two years. #3, p.122

Clark
This black person died at age 20 on October 28, 1850 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 5, Lot 227. #50, p.4

Clark, Abigail
She was a black woman who came across the plains to California with Bacchus Clark in 1858.
She was a pioneer of Marysville and the mother of Mrs. Ellen Clark. #15, p.102

Clark, Bacchus
He was a black man who came to California with Abigail Clark in 1858.
He was the uncle of Ellen Clark and a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Clark, Ellen (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1856 via ox team from Polk County, Missouri and she became a pioneer of Marysville.
There were sixty people and two thousand head of cattle in her immigrant party.
The group located at Honey Lake Valley, then went to Santa Rosa and Petaluma, where Mrs. Clark became the wife of Mr. Piper.
The remaining members of her family came across the plains with her mother, Abigail Clark, and her uncle Bacchus Clark, who came across in 1858. #15, p.102

Clark, Henderson
He was a black man who came to California in 1856 with granddaughter Matilda Clark and Mrs. J.N. Williams.
He was the father of Ellen Clark and husband of Abigail Clark.
The family finally settled in Marysville after coming to California through the influence of John Loney, who had come in 1849. #15, p.102

Clark, Julia
She was a black woman from Virginia who died on November 29, 1850 at age 30.
She was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.4

Clark, Laura
In 1864 she attempted to ride a streetcar home from church in San Francisco.
Louise Tyler, Mary Ellen Pleasant and Mrs. Bivens accompanied her.
Tyler, being light-skinned was allowed in the car but the other women were refused entry.
Mr. Brown and his daughter Charlotte successfully sued the company. #15, p.65

Clark, Matilda
She was a black girl and the daughter of Ellen Clark. She came to California with her grandfather Henderson Clark and Mrs. J.N. Williams in 1856.
She became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

Clark, Sandy
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Marysville. #15, p.102

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Clay, George H.
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.102

Cloyd, David
In 1870 Mary E. Pleasant employed him at 920 Washington Street in San Francisco.
He worked there with Shirley Green and John T. Valentine as domestics. #27, p.2

Cobb, Aaron
He was a black man, born in Virginia, who worked as town crier in Marysville, CA. #3, p.113

Page 26

Coffey, Alvin
He was a black man who was born into slavery in 1822 in St. Louis County, Missouri.
He arrived in San Francisco with his owner Mr. Duvall on September 1, 1849.
Duvall was sickly and they went to Sacramento on October 13, 1849.
He worked in the mines for the next eight months and earned $5,000 for Duvall.
He saved $700 for himself by washing and ironing miners’ clothes at night.
After staying in California for nearly two years, he accompanied the sickly Duvall back to Missouri.
When they reached Kansas City, Missouri Duvall took his earnings.
He was sold to Nelson Tindle and made an overseer of a section of slaves.
Tindle allowed him to return to California in order to earn the cost of his freedom.
He paid $1,500 for his freedom and then began to save for the purchase of his wife and two daughters.
He earned nearly $7,000 by placer mining in and around Red Bluff and Redding.
The daughters were taken to Canada for their education and his wife Mahalia came with him to Red Bluff.
He opened a laundry in Red Bluff and also earned a small fortune making hay.
He made $10,000 in a few years but lost most his savings.
His minister’s white friend from Sacramento Valley borrowed money from him but later couldn’t repay it.
After his wife died, he became a prime organizer of the Home of the Aged and Infirm Colored People in Beulah, where he spent the remainder of his life. #15, pp.70-71; #55, pp.16-17

Coffey was brought to California from Tennessee as the slave of Dr. Bassett. #3, p.25

Coffey came to California in 1849 at the age of 27. #3, p.69

Coffey dug $5,000 in gold over a two-year period for Bassett and in his spare time earned $700 from washing miners’ clothes.
Bassett returned to Missouri with Coffey and took his $700 in savings.
Coffey was sold to another Missourian and allowed to return to California.
In California he placer mined gold in the Redding, Red Bluff area and purchased his freedom for $1,500.
Over time, Coffey paid Basset $1,500 for the freedom of his wife and daughters. #3, p70

Coffey is the only black member of the prestigious Society of California Pioneers. #3, p.25

Coffey left St. Louis for California on April 2, 1849 as part of a group of 20 wagons.
He began mining in CA on October 15, 1849. #4, p.125

By 1860 the Coffeys were free and prosperous residents of Tehema County. #4, p.127; #46, p.63

He mined for gold in California and used gold dust to pay for his freedom.
He paid his owner $1,000 for his freedom but he was taken back to Missouri and sold.
In 1854 he returned to the California gold fields as an enslaved man.
After several years of hard work he earned $7,000 and bought freedom again for himself and his family. #46, p.63

Coffey, Mahalia
She was a black woman who was held in slavery by Dr. Bassett in Missouri.
She was married to enslaved Alvin Coffey and they had two daughters.
Alvin paid for their freedom through placer mining in California.
The daughters were taken to Canada for education and she accompanied Alvin to Red Bluff.
They opened a laundry and saved nearly $10,000.
When she died Alvin moved to Beulah. #15, p.70

Coger, (Mrs.)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Sacramento. #15, p.102

Cole, James
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Cole, Peter K. (1831-1900)
A native of New York, he resided at 71 Merchant Street in San Francisco.
He worked as a teacher, letter writer, translator of English, French, Spanish, bookkeeper, travel agent.
After his return from an 1865 trip to Japan, Egypt, and Palestine he advocated that blacks purchase a vessel to be used in trade with Japan.
He wrote “Hints in regard to Commencing Commercial Trade with Japan.” #27, p.5

Coleman, Mary (Miss)
She was a black woman who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

Collins, Alfred
He was a black man who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Stockton. #15, p.103

He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Collins, Caleb
He was a black man who died on October 14, 1852 and was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery. #50, p.5

Collins, Henry M. (1819?-1874)
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

He was a native of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
In 1844 he worked with Martin Delany on the publication of a black newspaper, the Pittsburgh Mystery. #27, p.14

He was a black man who left Ohio in 1852 for California.
He was formerly a riverboat man, with experience as a steward on Ohio River vessels.
In California he became a steward on the Comanche and later he worked on other inland waters vessels.
He served key role in linking various northern California black communities due to his connection with ships.
His former real estate experience in Pittsburgh helped him become one of state’s wealthiest black leaders. #3, p.99

He acquired a modest fortune by investing the money he made on ships in stock and real estate speculation. #45, p.29

He was one of the black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
The group included Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Peter Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp.54-55

He was a member of committee on public schools for black children in San Francisco.
Along with Collins were Peter Anderson, Barney Fletcher, J.B. Sanderson, and David Ruggles. #3, p.173

Collins was a subscriber to Frederick Douglass’ Paper and he sold between 40-50 subscriptions in California in 1854.
He was a Colored Convention leader, being a delegate at all three.
Probably he owned more real estate than any other San Francisco black person. #3, p.188

On August 19, 1854 he was elected to the publishing committee for the Mirror of the Times newspaper. Others on the committee were J.H. Townsend, William Newby, Reverend Moore, Nathan Pointer.
Collins was the best fundraiser in the San Francisco black community. #3, p.219

In 1859 he was the president of the California Savings and Land Association.
Other officers were Peter Anderson (Vice-President), E.R. Johnson (Secretary), William Hall, Edward Cain, Thomas Bundy, Benjamin Harris, Thomas Taylor, and George Washington Dennis (Board of Directors). #3, p.265

He was an officer of the Livingstone Institute, which was organized in 1860 as the West’s first attempt at acquiring a secondary school for black children.
Investors’ money was returned with interest in 1863 after the law changed.
The officers were Barney Fletcher (President),Rev. Moore (Financial and Traveling Secretary), John A Barber, William Hall, James Sampson, William Ringold, David W. Ruggles, Richard T. Houston, and William A. Carter (Trustees), and Henry M. Collins and Nathaniel Gray (Treasurers). #27, p7

He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Colored Convention selected in 1865.
The committee included F.G. Barbadoes as president, Solomon Peneton as vice-president, Henry Hall as corresponding secretary, James R. Starkey as treasurer, Shadrack Howard as recording secretary, William Yates, Henry Collins, William H. Hall, James P. Dyer, J. Madison Bell, Edward W. Parker, David W. Ruggles and John F. Meshaw #15, p.63

In 1869 Collins worked at the Merchant Exchange Building.
While in California he was an important leader in various organizations, including the Savings Fund and Land Association, the Livingstone Institute, the AME Zion Church, the Elevator Silver Mining Company, and the California civil rights convention of 1873. #27 p.14

Compton, Joseph
He was a black man held enslaved by William Compton in Butte County.
He was given his freedom in 1851 after two years of service to William Compton. #15, p.86

Cook, James
He was a black man from Ohio who mined in Yuba County, surrounded by whites from Ohio, New York, and Massachusetts. #3, p,64

Cook, Nelson
He was a black man from New York who worked for bankers Drexel, Sather, and Church in 1854. #3, p.9

Cook, Symon
He helped establish the Franchise League to secure testimony rights for blacks on August 12, 1862.
Organizers of the league included F.G. Barbadoes, William H. Yates, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson, R.A. Hall, Peter A. Bell and J.B. Sanderson. #15, p.54

He was one of the black men who pledged themselves to lobby in Sacramento for testimony rights.
Included in this group were Henry Collins, Alfred White, Rev. Peter Cassey, William Hall, William A. Smith, George W. Dennis, J.B. Sanderson, John A. Jones, James Brown, Peter Bell, Mifflin Gibbs, David Ruggles, John Moore, Symon Cook, I.G. Wilson and R.H. Hall. #15, pp.54-55

Cooper, Ezekiel
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

He was one of black people who left California for British Columbia in the late 1850s. #15, p.78

He worked as an uneducated janitor in San Francisco
In the1870 census he claimed ownership of $10,000 in San Francisco lots.

Cooper, Smith
He was a black miner in California in 1849. #15, p.105

Cooper, T.
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Suisun City. #15, p.103

Copeland, Z.
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Princeton in Colusa County. #15, p.103

Coran, James
He was arrested for selling whiskey to Indians. #3, p.87

Cornish, Henry
He was a black man who opened a second-hand furniture and clothing store in San Francisco on Battery Street
He was active in causes and a leader in the local black community. #3, p.98

Cornish, Samuel
He was a free black man from New York who was associated with leading black abolitionists in New York and Philadelphia.
In 1850 he mined at Dragoon Gulch in Tuolumne County (mentioned in census) where he worked with eight other blacks, including enslaved Tom Gilman. #3, p.69

Cousins, James
He was a black mine owner in California who purchased his family’s freedom. #46, p.86

Courtney, George
He was a black man who came to California and became a pioneer of Vallejo. #15, p.103

Cousins, James
He was one of the black owners of the Sweet Vengeance Mine in Brown’s Valley.
Other company members who worked the claim were Gabriel Simms, Friz James Vosburg, Abraham Freeman Holland, Edward Duplex and M. McGowan. #15, p.104

Coward, John
He was a black man from Louisiana who died on March 12, 1855 at age 37.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 313. #50, p.5

Cowles, Robert
He was a light-skinned black man who witnessed the murder of George Gordon in San Francisco.
He was not allowed to testify as a witness in court.
He was examined by a corps of physicians who decided his hair showed him to be 1/16 Negro. #15, p.54;
#58, p.113

Cox, Abraham
He was a black man who came to California in 1849. #15, p.102

He was a ship’s waiter in 1860.
He ran a sailors’ boardinghouse in 1862.
In 1866 it was taken over by West Indian John T. Callender. #45, p.14

He ran the Pioneer Seamen’s Boarding and Lodging House.
The house was located at the foot of Broadway in San Francisco. #45, p.78

Cox, Sully
In 1850 he was a possible owner of black boardinghouse located on Kearney Street in San Francisco. Aaron White was possibly a co-owner of the facility. #3, p.97

Crane, Samuel
He was a black man from Michigan who died on September 19, 1852 at age 46.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 3, Lot 404. #50, p.4

Crawley, Seaturn
He was a black man from Virginia who died on October 13, 1863 at age 35.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 27, Lot 96. #50, p.5

Crosby, Oscar
He was enslaved to Southern Mormon William Crosby. #57, pp.8, 10

Along with Hark Lay and Green Flake, his name appears on the monument that stands in Salt Lake City at the mouth of Emigration Canyon. #57, p.10

He was listed as having arrived in Utah in July 1847.
He was one of 26 black slaves “en route to California” according to the 1850 U.S. census.
He was part of the Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich Expedition of 1851. #57, p.97

Crum, William
He was a black boy from Missouri who died on January 4, 1852 at age 3.
He was buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery at Tier 18, Lot 30. #50, p.4

Cuney, Samuel E.
This was a black person who came to California in 1849 and became a pioneer of Grass Valley. #15, p.103

A letter he sent from Placerville, Idaho Territory was published in the Pacific Appeal on January 9, 1864.
He stated that among the 6,000 residents of the basin were blacks working as miners, barbers, jewelers and restaurant owners. #54, p.211


18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
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