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AfriGeneas Western Frontier Forum


This is the “Home” post for the list of California’s African American Pioneers

Ten posts with the list of names and narratives plus a bibliography of source material will be in this thread. Posts 1 thru 9 are approximately 15 pages each - post 10, 5 pages and the bibliography of source material, 3 pages.

Each entry in alphabetical order references a document listed on the bibliography and the page number of that document.

Post #1 --- “Aaron” – James E. Brown


Post #2 --- James Brown – Samuel E. Cuney


Post #3 --- “Cupid” – Abner H. Francis


Post #4 --- Jacob Francis – Irene Hickman


Post #5 --- Henry Hicks – Hark Lay


Post #6 --- Archy Lee – William H. Morrison


Post #7 --- J. C. Mortimer – Aaron Rice


Post #8 --- Fortune Richard – Mrs. Harriett Smith


Post #9 --- Henry Smith – Mrs. J. N. Williams


Post #10 --- James Williams – Benjamin Young


Bibliography of Source Material


Researched and submitted by

Guy Washington
National Park Service
1111 Jackson Street, Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607

Comments from Mr. Washington:

Hi Bennie,
Thank you for developing a forum on African American pioneers on the
Western Frontier. This area needs much work and I have attached a copy of my research on black pioneers in California. I don't know if you can post this rather lengthy document, which now contains over 1,000 citings.

Take care,


Hi Bennie,
Thank you for this consideration. You may post my contact information and use my database entries in any manner that fits and is useful to people.

All the best,

18 Dec 2002 :: 14 Nov 2008
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