I should mention that a critical point to consider in Black/Indian relation is that both Ivan Van Sertima " They Came Before Columbus," and Jack D. Forbes " Africans And Native Americans- The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red -Black Peoples," present the likelihood of an inter-racial/cultural melding of people of African descent and Native Americans outside timeframes and/or geographies of post- Columbus America. Ivan Van Sertima presents research that infers African seafarers made contact with Native Americans and influenced native culture as early as 1200 BC. I've included a quote from Van Sertima in the text of an article by Dr. Ardencie Hall-Karambé. I thought the larger text was informative:
"...From ancient texts, archaeological materials, and orature (oral literature) there is mounting evidence of contact between Native American and African peoples at least two hundred years before Columbus arrived in the new world. Columbus, in his own writings, describes how the Carib Indians living on the island of Hispaniola (now Haiti and the Dominican Republic) told him that "black-skinned people had come from the south and southeast trading in gold-tipped metal spears." In his groundbreaking work, They Came Before Columbus, scholar and author Ivan Van Sertima writes, "Columbus sent these samples back to Spain to be tested, and they were found to be identical in their proportion of gold, silver, and copper alloys to spears then being forged in African Guinea. Columbus' son, Ferdinand, said his father told him that he had seen black people north of what is now Honduras." While conducting research in Mali, I had the opportunity to listen to local griots recount the expedition of Abubakari II, the Malian monarch who abdicated his throne in 1311 and set off to discover whether the Atlantic Ocean, like the vast Niger River, had another bank. The Mali griots reported that in 1312 Abubakari II landed in what is now Recife, Brazil. Abubakari's voyage is mentioned not only in the griots' narratives but also in Arabic texts, including a 14th century Egyptian book by the historian al-Oman."
Jack D. Forbes reverses course and discusses the possibility that Native American seafarers could have made it to Africa due to their marine technology of canoes with sails at the time of Columbus. Forbes documents evidence however of Post-Columbus shipments of Native Americans to Africa and Europe as slaves, suggesting that Native American blood and culture was re-circulated back to the Americas via the African slave trade:
"...tens of millions of Americans who disappeared after 1492 did not all die in the 'holocaust' inflicted within the Americas. Many thousand were sent to Europe and Africa where their descendents still live."
Forbes, Jack d, Africans And Native Americans- The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red -Black Peoples,
Allen L. Lee