The Battle of Poison Spring, Arkansas, April 18,1864 was one of the largest battles ever won by the Confederates in Arkansas and the largest massacre in Arkansas. There were 438 officers and men from the 1st Kansas Colored infantry. More than 182 men of the 1st Kansas Infantry were killed and then the wounded were killed, as a result of the Confederates refusal to take black prisoners in that ambush.
Confederate Brig. Gen.John S. Marmaduke with 3,600 cavalry deployed for battle at Poison Spring with 786 Missourians, 1500 Arkansans, in brigades led by Brig. Gen. William Cabell and Col. William A. Crawford; and 655 Texans and 680 CHOCTAW Indians in a division brought from Indian Territory by Brig. Gen. Samuel B. Maxey.
It was known; that of all those who participated in the homicidal frenzy at Poison Spring, the Choctaws were the most ferocious, led by Col. Tandy Walker.
The Choctaws scalped some and nearly stripped all of the black troops and took no prisoners.
The Confederates continued their racially motivated massacres at Mark's Mills, Jenkins Ferry, Princeton and Flat Rock, which altogether, may have exceeded in numbers, the massacre at Fort Pillow.