AfriGeneas Free Persons of Color Forum
Re:Black and Native Relations
In Response To: Re:Black and Native Relations ()
Why does it seem strange that the Pamunkey would have relations with slaves? They did not share white racist attitudes. It was only after 1843 when the state threatened to take away their reservation--they "having so largely mingled with the negro race as to have obliterated all striking features of Indian extraction"--that they became color conscious.
The site which has abstracts of the Virginia Gazette seems to be down now, but here are a few samples of runaway ads compiled by Professor Thomas Costa:
14 April 1768. Purdie & Dixon edition. Isaac an Indian slave aged about 40 years, run away from my plantation on George's Creek in Buckingham. He was born and lived many years on the Brook of Chickahominy, and has some connexions in Goochland, where he may probably be at present. He wore long curled hair before his elopement, but countenance and disposition are altogether Indian. Robert Bolling, jun.
2 August 1770 (Rind edition). Committed to the prison of York, a Negro boy, who says that he is free and was born in the Indian town on Pamunkey river.
Purdie & Dixon, November 29, 1770
12 September 1771. Prince George. Run away from the subscriber a Negro fellow named Frank, twenty seven years of age, five feet five or six inches high, of a yellow Complexion ... He has run away several times and always passed for a Freeman ... I imagine he is sculking about Indian Town on Pamunkey among the Indians, as in one of his former Trips he got himself a Wife amongst them. David Scott.
Purdie & Dixon, 24 September 1772 committed to the Publick Jail, from James City Prison, a Runaway Woman named Molly, who says she belongs to Charles Budd of Charles City County ... about forty Years old, has a prominent Nose, and by her Complexion would pass for one of the Indian Race ... Peter Pelham.
12 March 1772. Run away from the subscriber in Dinwiddie ... Mulatto man named Dick, about 30 years old ... has grey eyes, his hair is short, and curls close to his head ... a Shoemaker by Trade and is very handy about any other business; he may try to pass for a free man, as he can read and write ... has got a brother belonging to Mr. David Scott, of Prince George, who has been run away for a year or two together, and brought several times from among the Indians on Pamunkey river, they will probably make that way together ... James Walker.
26 November 1772. (Purdie & Dixon) Run away from the subscriber in Cumberland a Mulatto Man named Jim who is a slave but pretends to have a right to his freedom. His Father was an Indian, of the name of Cheshire, and very likely will call himself James Cheshire, or Chink. He is a short well set fellow, about twenty seven years of age, with long black hair resembling an Indian's. Paul Michaux.
26 November 1772 ... Dick a light Mulatto Slave, by trade a Shoemaker, and was lately the Property of James Walker. He is about thirty five Years of Age ... can read, and may attempt to pass for a freeman ... It is supposed he is harboured about Brandon, or with the Indians on Pamunkey ... Robert Walker.
3 December 1772. Committed to the Jail of Surry County, a Negro Man who says his Name is Tom, and that he belongs to Benjamin Clements of Sussex ... appears to be of the Indian Breed ... Drury Warren.
21 April 1773. Purdie & Dixon edition. Run away from the subscriber two slaves, namely: a Negro fellow named Fortune ... Also a Wench named Aminta, appears to be about thirty years of age, short and well made, has much the look of an Indian, and is so, her Mother having been brought from the Spanish Main to Rhode Island. William Bradley.
13 July 1773. Run away ... a Mulatto Slave named David ... says he is of the Indian Breed, and went down to the General Court, as I imagined to sue for his Freedom, but has never returned. Whoever brings him to me in Dinwiddie ... shall have three pounds ten shillings ... William Cuszens.
10 March 1774. (Rind edition) Run away from the subscriber a half Indian fellow who calls himself Jack Brown, and was formerly the property of Colonel John Bolling, of Goochland; he is about 40 years old. Augustine Longan.
11 March 1775. Run away from the subscriber ... a very bright Mulatto Man named Stephen ... His wife Phebe went away with him, a remarkable white Indian Woman ... I imagine they will both endeavour to pass as free ... Henry Hardaway.
2 December 1775. Bute County, North Carolina. Run away from William Tabb, a Slave named Charles, of the Indian Breed, about 23 Years of Age, with straight black Hair, light Complexion ... raised in Prince George County, Virginia ... William Tabb. Robert Goodloe.
6 January 1776. Run away from the subscriber, the 26th November last, 4 negro men, viz. Harry, Virginia born, 5 feet 8 or 9 inches high, 30 years of age, a dark mulatto, with long bushy hair; he is of the Indian breed ... Edmund Ruffin. Prince George.
3 August 1776. Run away from the Subscriber ... a remarkably strong well made Negro fellow named Ben, formerly the property of Mr. John Nicholas of Buckingham ... He passed last Fall at Fredericksburg, for a free Man, by the name of John Savage, and has an Indian Woman for his Wife who some Time ago lived in Goochland. It is probable they are together, as she sold off, and moved from her late Dwelling Place in Albemarle, a few days before the Fellow ran away. Any person that will deliver the above Slave to Mr. John Nicholas in Buckingham, or the subscriber in Amherst, shall receive three pounds reward, and what the Law allows. Patrick Rose.
11 November 1773. Run away from the subscriber, last month, a Negro man of the name Tom about 5 feet 6 inches high, of a yellowish complexion, much the appearance of an Indian ... His hair is of a different kind from that of a Negro's, rather more of an Indian's, but partaking of both ... Whoever will convey the said runaway to me, in Amelia County, living near Rocky Run church ... shall have a reward of five pounds ... Dorothy Jones.
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