AfriGeneas Free Persons of Color Forum
Ariela Gross Litigating Identity and Citizenship
Hi Paul and Free People of Color Researchers:
I just read Ariela Gross' fascinating article entitled "Of Portuguese Origin": Litigating Identity and Citizenship among the "Little Races" in Nineteenth-Century America."
Her introduction reads:
"The history of race in the nineteenth-century United States is often told as a story of black and white in the South, and white and Indian in the West, with little attention to the intersection between black and Indian. This article explores the history of nineteenth-century America's "little races"—racially ambiguous communities of African, Indian, and European origin up and down the eastern seaboard. These communities came under increasing pressure in the years leading up to the Civil War and in its aftermath to fall on one side or the other of a black-white color line. Drawing on trial records of cases litigating the racial identity of the Melungeons of Tennessee, the Croatans/Lumbee of North Carolina, and the Narragansett of Rhode Island, this article looks at the differing paths these three groups took in the face of Jim Crow: the Melungeons claiming whiteness; the Croatans/Lumbee asserting Indian identity and rejecting association with blacks; the Narragansett asserting Indian identity without rejecting their African origins. Members of these communities found that they could achieve full citizenship in the U.S. polity only to the extent that they abandoned their self-governance and distanced themselves from people of African descent."
Paul, you may know of Ms. Gross' research. She mentions your body of work in her Reference Notes.
The history of the Narragansett Tribe of Rhode Island was intriguing too. They declared that "We claim that while one drop of Indian blood remains in our veins, we are entitled to the rights and privileges guaranteed by your ancestors to ours by solemn treaty, which without a breach of faith you cannot violate."
Kudos to Ariela Gross.
And always Kudos to you Paul for your landmark research!
K Wyer Lane