-- Sunday, 1 January 2006, at 1:44 a.m.
This is part of a message sent to me by my brother, regarding his DNA test. He explains the process much better than I, and this may answer some of the questions.
Studying the DNA testing information, I learned that genetic mutations
occur at a particular rate in time. Referred to as markers, genetic
mutations are recorded on our DNA; such that, the more genetic markers one test, the further back in time one can look. Thus a 37-marker DNA test looks further back in time than a 12-marker one. The Y-chromosome passes intact from father to son; I inherited my Y-chromosome from Dad who inherited it from Grandpop who inherited it from his father, Isaac Baxter, and so on.
When I took the 12-marker test at African Ancestry, they reported that
the 12-marker pattern matched that of the Indians in Columbia, South America. Thus I concluded that, somewhere back in time, we Baxters had a male ancestor that we share in common with the Native Americans in Columbia, SA. I determined that with a 37-marker test I could identify a relatively less recent common ancestor by taking us back further. So far, the results of my 37-marker, Y-DNA test indicates that my haplogroup is either the people of South Asia (Indonesia, Melanesia) or Southeast Asia (Japan, Viet Nam,Korea). I am awaiting the results of a definitive haplogroup test to tell me
which group is more likely.I also ordered the mtDNA test; I want to see the extent to which my X-chromosome reflects your results (my test was taken through family Tree DNA and was a mtdna test). I learned that although the male's X-chromosome comes from his mother who has two, she may have given him one that she inherited from one or two of his four grandparents (or a combination of both grandparents' X's) or any three (but only three) of his eight great-grandparents. Because of this fact, each child in a family might have a different X-chromosome.
My brothers results were surprising in that our paternal Grandfathers' , paternal line came from South America. We believed that this line would point to Africa, since my Grandfather was listed as Colored (African American), and was born in South Carolina. Although he was orphaned we were told that the Baxters' were slaves in Orangeburg South Carolina. Now we are looking in an entirely different direction, and hoping to find some answers.
The DNA is pointing to the possibility that Natives did not just come downward from the Bering Strait into the US. Our line came up from South America into South Carolina. We are attempting to identify the tribe that my ancestor was part of.
I will keep everyone posted.
Family Tree DNA