Thanks for the info. After careful deliberation and some additional digging, for the time being, I am going to assume that Mariah Broddie Kelly was married to Henry Broddie. Henry may have died and then she married Edmond Kelly.
Since laws were subject to personal interpretation and application, I think that what she did was change her name and the names of the kids to Kelly when she married Edmond. This would make sense because when I checked census info prior to the end of the Civil War, I could not find a white Kelly in Franklin County (assuming the theory that after the war, the freed slaves took on the name of the slave-holding family, which I understand doesn't always have to be the case).
I did find a white slaveholder with the last name of Broddie who had several slaves. On the 1860 census, even though they are un-named, their ages sort of match up with Mariah, Henry, and children.
On the 1870 census, I found Edmond Kelly in Petersburg, VA working with tobacco. His age is off by about 7 or 8 years as compared to what it is listed as on the 1880 census but on the VA census, he lists his place of birth as NC.
I am slowly accepting the fact that my identity has been a fraud all of these years and that I am not a Kelley, I am really a Broddie :0)
Now I just have to break the news to the rest of the Kelley's this year at our first ever Kelley Family Reunion.
If you have any additional info to share, please do. I am still trying to piece this all together.
Peace and Blessings.